From measuring time to understand our situation in a & # 39; Humanity, from Earth mapping to & # 39; sea navigation, from the first human innovations to advanced technologies today: mathematics has been a human life axis
The first steps of the human mathematical journey were given by ancient cultures of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece, cultures that created the basic language of number and numeracy.
But when his ancient Greek fell, stop the progress of mathematics … in the west. In the east, new uprisings arise. Much of this mathematical estate is often not available. belief that he deserves.
The Great Wall of China, which stretches thousands of kilometers, built almost 2,000 years since its inception in 220 BC. to defend the empire that is growing.
The huge defensive wall is an amazing work of engineering built on rough and high ground.
As soon as they started to build it, the old Chinese needed to calculate distances, elevation angles, and quantity of materials, so it is not surprising that it has innovative mathematical techniques be encouraged.
It was a very simple system; to establish a basis for the way we are in the present.
When they wanted to make a look, they used small cucumber dogs. The bars were arranged to represent the numbers from 1 to 9.
Then they put them in pillars so that each one would represent units, ten, hundreds, thousands and so on.
If they wanted, for example, to represent the number 924, it was enough to place the symbol 4 in the unit column, the symbol 2 in the column of the ten and the 9 symbol in the column of hundreds.
The power of these bars is that they allow calculations quickly. This is the name of a decimal place value system, and is very similar to what we are doing; used today: we use numbers from 1 to 9, and its situation tells us if there are units, ten, or thousands.
The old Chinese did not go. The first one used a decimal value system, but they did it for more than a thousand years before accepting it in the West.
But they were only used when they were counted with the rods. When they wanted to write the numbers, they got everything to stop. Because they did not have their 0 concept, they would have to create specific symbols for ten, hundreds, thousands and thus represent them by writing them down.
So, the 924 number would be written as 9 hundreds, 2 ten and 4. It was not as effective. Without zero, the number was written very well. However, that did not stop the old Chinese from taking large maths measures.
In ancient China, the numbers of things that were very interesting. According to the story, his first sovereign in China, Emperor Buidhe or Huangdi, was one of his deadmen; Creating mathematics in 2800 BC, believed the numbers were tragic.
And to this day, the Chinese still believe in the power of the numbers. Numerical numbers are seen as men, even numbers, females. The number 4 must be avoided at all costs. The number 8 gives good luck.
In addition, the ancient Chinese were drawn to patterns in numbers, and created a very early version of sudoku. It was the magic square; him.
The story says that thousands of years ago returned to the emperor Yu with a sacred turtle that came out of the depths of the River Bhuidhe. On the back were numbers arranged in a magic square. In that circumstance, which was considered crucially important, the numbers in each line (horizontal, straight and subtle) added as follows: 15.
Although it may only be something fun, the game shows the great Chinese enthusiasm with mathematical patterns, and did not long so that they created more magic squares with more magic and mathematical powers.
Mathematics also played an important part in the empire's court operation.
The planet's calendar and movement was so important to the regulator, which influenced all of his decisions, even in the way the day was planned, so that scientists were the nobles of the court imperial, and the sciences were always mathematical.
Everything in the life of the emperor was governed by his calendar, and he kept matters with mathematical measure. Everything, which includes your sexual life.
Generic mathematical question
One of the actions of the imperial mathematical counselors was to create a system that allows the emperor to lie with the number of women who had died. he had in his son and could.
The legend tells that the emperor had a relationship with 121 women in 15 nights:
- the empress,
- 3 high or "female" competitions,
- 9 women or "invited women",
- 27 consubines not "hereditary women" and
- 81 slaves or "visiting women".
The mature counselors found the solution based on an idea of geometric progression. They noticed that there was a series of populations in which one will be. go from one number to the next year by multiplying the same number each time, in this case, 3.
Each group of women is three times larger than a group; Previously, so they could arrange a setup that would ensure that the emperor was able to; sleep with every woman at her old woman.
Her first night was preserved for the Princess. The next one, for the best three partnerships. The 9 women came after, and then the 27 competitions, in groups of 9 every night.
Finally, during 9 nights, the 81 slaves passed through their beds in groups of 9.
They also encamped that the emperor slept with the highest women on the closest nights to her; A full moon, when its strength of women was at the highest level and capable of its connection, or male strength The purpose was clear and necessary: to seek the imperial empire better.
Indeed, mathematics was also fundamental for the state's operation. Old China was a major empire and tight lawsuit, broad taxes and a regular system of weights, measurements and money.
The empire needed a high-tech civil service capable of mathematical. And for tutoring for those officers there was a textbook, written about 200 BC: "The nine chapters on mathematics art."
The book contains 246 problems in practical areas such as trade, salary pay and taxes. And at the bottom of these problems is one of the main subjects of mathematics: how to solve mutual concepts.
The consonants are something similar to curious riddles. You will find some information about some of the unidentified numbers, and from that information you have to show what unidentified numbers do.
For example …
If you know:
- 1 plum has 3 peaches with a total value of 15 grams
- 2 plumag with 1 peach weight of 10 grams total …
- … you can find out how much of a plum and one peach is.
If you give a first set set -1 and 3 peaches that are & # 39; consider 15 grams – and get married, you will have: 2 plumag and 6 peaches measuring 30 grams.
If you're removing the second sister of 2 pounds and 1 a sinner who is a? Meaning, the product is interesting: not only do you know that you're waiting for 20 grams but now there are no clips.
So if the remaining 5 pockets allow 20 grams, there is one game at a level of 4 grams, and you can do this that each game is less than 3 grams .
The old Chinese continued to use similar methods to the number that was in the # 39; an increasing number of unidentified people, is used to constantly reduce consonants. This is an amazing thing that this unique system of dispute resolution did not appear in the West to the early 19th century.
In 1809, as long as he was a & # 39; Analyzing a rock called Pallas in the asteroid zone, Carl Friedrich Gauss, who was named "prince of mathematics", out of this way that was created in ancient China since ancient times .
Importance of excess
The Russians have confirmed even more complex equations with much larger numbers.
In the Chinese word called a Chinese text; In the rest, they have encountered a new type of problem. In this, we know the number that still exists when the unidentified number of the equation is divided by a certain number, for example, 3, 5 or 7.
Although it is an abusive mathematical problem, the old Chinese sent it out forever.
For example …
There is no woman in the market; understand how many eggs it has. What it is is to understand that …
- if placed in 3 in 3, 1 egg is left;
- if you put 5 out of it, you have 2 eggs left;
- If you put them into a row of 7, find out that there are 3 eggs left
The old Chinese got a systematic way of working out that the smallest number of eggs they could have on their boat is 52.
The most amazing thing is that you can take so large a number, such as 52, using small numbers as 3, 5 and 7.
By the sixteenth century AD, theorem and Chinese surplus was used in ancient Chinese surname to measure the motion of a planet. And today there are still practical habits.
Internet crioptography is numerically encoding & # 39; Using mathematics that has origins in Chinese theory.
By the eighteenth century, mathematics had been established in the Chinese curriculum in the past, with over 30 scattered schools across the country.
The Chinese Maths Gold Age had come. And Qin Jiushao was the most important mathematician.