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The Arctic is in a worse format than you did understand



Over the past three decades of global warming, the oldest and deepest ice in the Arctic has fallen to an incredible 95%, according to the annual Arctic Recital Charter and the National Inflation.

The product shows that a & # 39; sea ​​at the top of the world has already made a new and different state, with a major impact not only for seabirds and Polish mines, but for the long term, perhaps, for the distance of world warming itself.

Older age can be considered as a type of preservation that accompanies the Arctic and, as a result of sustainability, Helps to keep the Arctic cold even in long summers.

"The youngest is the best, more likely, easier to be away," said Don Perovich, a science at Dartmouth to co-ordinate the marine ice section of the annual report.

If the Arctic starts to experience summers completely free of charge, scientists say that they will have a " a warmer planet, because the dark water of the ocean is full; including a large amount of sun heating that would be protected by ice cover. The new findings have been published as a Polish climate reconciliation that aims to reach global consensus on how to deal with climate change.

In March, NASA scientists saw the Operation IceBridge campaign, The study of the polar sections using search aircraft, a real drama of the ongoing changes. Traveling over the seas north of it; Greenland, in an area that usually appears some of the oldest, deepest in the Arctic, saw striped, thin strips; connect together the pieces deeper.

"I was just spoiled by how different it was," said Nathan Kurtz NASA, who has traveled over the area several times. The wet ice age was completely broken up last month – very unusual for this place – and now it did not go to it; laughed well again again.

Scientists believe that a strange wind event caused the battle in this section just a few hundred miles south of the North Pole – so it is unclear whether it is directly linked to change of climate. Despite this, b & # 39; The break can only be one signature as well as increasing the worsening of the oldest age.

It is important enough – not just a ice area

The new decisions about age lower than ice in the articulated piety to a less aware side of the dramatic changes that are in the middle. happening there. When it comes to the ice-cream cap on the arctic top of the arctic, we tend to do it; Most common talk about its surface range – which is the whole ocean covered by ice, rather than open water. That is easy to see – it can be shown directly by satellite – and the area, in fact, is in a clear decline.

But the loss of elderly and thick ice, and the similar decline in the overall ice measure, is even larger – and may be a bigger deal. Young and thin ice can regenerate rapidly when the winter is dark and cold. But it may not add to the Arctic Ocean ice system much stability or sustainability if it is; demolish the next summer again.

The total number of ice in September, the lowest ice month, fell by 78 per cent between 1979 and 2012, the low annual record. That is according to analysis by scientists at the Washington University of Seattle called PIOMAS, or Pan-Arctic Deposition Democracy System and Equity System – the main source for detecting a volume of ice.

Fairly, the ice measure has rejected something from 2012. And only PIOMAS is a module, and warned Axel Schweiger at the University of Washington, who runs the survey. (The model simply draws the amount of ice thickness taken from seagulls, satellites and other sources). Despite this, Schweiger agrees when you think about a number The whole ice, rather than just a surface, you realize that there is a lot more than lost.

"We lost about half of the rate, we've lost half of the amount, and if you change these two, we've lost 75 percent of sewage in September," he said .

With PIOMAS numbers, the losses are missing; representing more than 10 trillion tonnes of ice. Although there were more than 15 trillion tons of fleeting eggs in the & # 39; Arctic Ocean in 1979 in the month of September, in the same month in 2012, was less than 3.5 trillion tonnes. This year, there were only 4.66 trillion tonnes in September.


Settlements in the measurement / measure of sea ice are another important indicator of the Arctic climate change. Although the depths of the ocean ice are too small, here we will use the sea and sea ice model, PIOMAS (Zhang and Rothrock, 2003), to make a glimpse of the thickness and the size of the -Sell from 1979 to 2018. Updated by September 2018. (Zack Labe) (Zack Lab)

"The Arctic is a sign of what comes to the rest of the world," said Walt Meier, a Ice Ice Scientist at the National National Snow and Ice Center. "In the Arctic Ocean, a difference of 2 degrees can be great. If it goes from 31 Fahrenheit to 33 Fahrenheit, you're going from ice to scratch to swim … it's The Arctic is an early warning system for the climate. "

The new Arctic Youth

And the direct transition is not about ice conversion – it is the Arctic version of the film "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button". Ice is growing younger.

The oldest is the oldest anchorage, which has survived four or more summers and is called "multi-species ice", the deepest. It's been upgrading to & # 39; most over time and can be significantly higher than 10 feet. It can grow even deeper in places where it develops high ridges from a & # 39; move to other ice parts, or from continuing weight from the rest of the package.

But this ice is a result of a & # 39; air and sea warming, or getting away from the head through the Sound of Frame, between Greenland and Svalbard – and then melting in warmer waters.

More often, there is still a still ice that will; created only after summer warmth, usually in September, and can not survive after the following summer. This "first-year ice" is more brutal, more easily thrown around winds and waves, which offers the arrows of the Icelandic arrows more mobile phones and tends to; break out.

In 1985, the new NOAA report found that 16% of the Arctic was covered by the oldest age, over four years of age, at the height of its winter. But by March, that number had fallen to less than 1 per cent. That is a 95 percent decline.

At the same time, the youngest, first year, has gone away from 55 per cent of the package in the 1980s to 77 per cent, according to the report. (It's a ice in the rest that is between two and three years old)

"Forty years ago, there were large sections of the Arctic who had a few years old ice," said Alek Petty, a NASA researcher who works with the Operation IceBridge project. "But now, that is rarely that … if you get rid of that age that is five or 10 years old, it's obvious that it will take that long to fill it -where. "

"And it does not seem that's happening," Petty said.

The deep danger at dark Arctic Ocean

This extremely deserting process, scientists say, is going ahead of an important time – when every apple in the Arctic is thin and year old or less. When that is the biggest day of youth – we'll be close to a horrible milestone: an Arctic Ocean, which only lasts in summer.

"Looking down from the North Pole from above, for all your ideas and reasons, you'll see the blue Arctic blue," said Meier.

It is not clear as soon as an event such as this can be reached. A for example, the report from the Inter-Governmental Climate Change Panel said it would happen once every 10 years if the world's heat is to 2 degrees Celsius, but only once every 100 years at 1.5 degrees Celsius. (Heat at the same time Celsius at present.)

So, with the time we exceed 1.5 degrees, which may be within decimals; when the heating is going on, it looks like & # 39; the first start of a ice start up.

The reason why an Arctic ice is going to decline soon, and why scientists are worried about being able to do it; follow, which is the same.

The Arctic has a known backbone bend, caused by ice and sun reflection. When the Arctic Ocean is covered with brighter, white, it has more sunlight coming back into space. But when there is less ice, more heat will be taken by its dark ocean – a & # 39; warm up their planet longer. That warmest ocean will go to it; preventing the growth of ice in the future, and that is why the process itself is bait.

The open ocean includes twice as much as changing sea, Veerabhadran Ramanathan, a climate expert at the Scripps of Oceanography Institute, who was a search engine on the role of chlorofluorocarbons (or CFCs) in to & # 39; removes the ozone layer but also enhances the global warming.

As a result, the Arctic icefall has increased the overall warmth of its planet. Ramanathan said that his / her impact is equivalent to his / her; Flooding effect of 250 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions, or about six years of global shocks.

Ramanathan is afraid to be completely free of summers, if they start to go to it. It happens regularly that they would add another Celsius degree (0.9 degrees Fahrenheit) to filter on everything else that his & her; planet before that.

"If that was happening, I thought of it as an accident," said Ramanathan from arctic summers who were free of charge. "It will quickly take this half step forward to warm up."

That additional warmth, he said, then stimulates a world with many other influences, such as carbon consumption. Increase from northern bone to earth, or major damage to Amazon rainforest. The additional heat would also spread snow cover over the land in the Arctic, and disturbing world temperatures as the surface of the dark earth contains more radiation which has a greater degree of radiation; come in.

Some believe that an Arctic condition is so bad that it requires emergency emergency. A group called Ice911, established by the reporter and lecturer Stanford, Leslie Fields, proposes a "geoengineering" strategic project that would including the distribution of medium silica jerseys over young seabirds in key areas, to clear the sunlight again and help with ice; first summer.

"If and when there is a decision to intervene in the Arctic, or elsewhere, we want to be out there with all the tests, outdoors, climate modeling, and exams ready to say, this is an impossible solution to reconstructing ice that can alleviate some of these major effects, "said Rom Decca, who was too with the agency.

We are still far from a world in which a radical degree is very well considered. But the problem of Arctic researchers has been abandoned.

"I thought the summer ice would disappear as the real dizziness we were scared by climate change," said Ramanathan.


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