Continuing to & # 39; genuine short gene genres, but for a larger vision we need libraries of genetic data



The headlines are expected: Scientists have ordered the genome of white basking shark. No an lemur cambù, not the golden eagle. But why do you spend so much time and money out what type of DNA is there? in different species?

Full-color genome screening is desirable to identify genetic signals (gene genres) to better understand population processes. But a very good and continuous value for whole genome arrangements is not only produced when many genomes are correct, comparable with each other. This type of work is just starting.

I am a leading biologist at the Florida Program for Shark Research. Our research focuses on understanding how sharks and modern rays are changed over their development to their habitats; live today.

Blueprints without guidance

The genome organism – the complete catalog of the DNA – continues to; a designer panorama. Differences in the DNA lines that make up genomes depend on the differences we see among people.

Similar pairs are similar to each other because the genomes are the same. Brother brothers are similar to each other because they possess large amounts of their genera from the same kind of parents. And closely related species look more like each other than those that are closer to it, as their genomes are more likely.

It follows that we would have the full genome information to organize, that all the information would be available; we need to understand how it works "from the ground up." In fact, these are the only words for her & # 39; first Human Genome Project

But the DNA series can be genomic organism in the bullets of nucleotides, or genetic build fractions. Trying to try to & # 39; That body should be broken together from the genome series as a means of trying to make sense of thousands of telephone conversations that have been distributed collaboratively from the "packages" of " information to a fiber-optic phone end, not to know how the information was organized. The data is "all there," but it's hard to find out what it means and does not mean clear interpreter. And scientists are still unaware of how all the genomean information is organized, or how the choreographed is.

The part of DNA is that basics that store information and its; enables coding DNA to be encoded – a person's visible features. There are four types in DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and tymine (T).
National Genome National Institute, CC BY-ND

Learning by comparison

If it's so hard to explain information to be buried in genome, why are there any concerns in collecting the data? The answer is if we compare the genomes against each other, we can tell the elements that depend on particular features.

For example, there are genomes and chimpanzees that are around 98 percent similar. This means that the 2 per cent difference between their respective elements needs to account for the differences in which they are; their appearance and its related features. By comparing the genomes by side, we allow us to identify the parts of the genome that are responsible for the differences that have been examined.

In fact, it is important to choose exactly what comparisons you make. Comparison between a human genome with a duck-billed platypus that genome tells us about what people do – no platypuses duck-billed, for a & # 39; case – so "special". Both species have come around 150 million years ago, and there are so many differences in their species and in their signals; show that it would be impossible to know what the genomic differences were the responsibility of these features.

However, by comparing human genomes and platypus (two mammals) against a bird of genome, this would give us signs of human genomes and platypus that were divided, but that were different from the genome bird. And then, a comparison between genomes of a number of mammals and females against amphibian genomes would help us to; reducing the genomic elements of birds and mammals that were different from amphibians.

Generic information can help scientists understand positive relationships among related species.
Robert Bear et al / Khan Academy, CC BY

Generating genetic libraries

Management comparisons similar to the one described above are at the heart of a comparative genome, a field that understands how differences in genome are related to different patterns in features that can be seen. Biologists describe this series of societies as a "genotype-phenotype map".

Obviously, scientists need to know the advanced relationships with organisms before doing so, and to ensure that the genomic information we collect correctly. If it is incorrect or unfinished, we have a risk of losing important societies between genotypes and the symptoms they make; do.

Recent progress in the rehabilitation DNA sequence and computer science revives the collection and analysis of this data. But it's still expensive. It costs about $ 30,000 to coordinate a basic 2.5-billion biomass genome (for comparison, there are about 3 billion pairs of human genomes) that have genitalization enough to be useful for genomic activity Comparative – and more for a larger genome, such as the lungfish or the salamander.

An international partnership of scientists is working to collect high quality genome collections for all animals that meet this status. Initial comparisons focus on selected species to represent the positive diversity of different groups of abrasives – a series of birds, reptiles, mammals, amphibians and fish. In September 2018 the project left its first 15 high-quality genome for species, including Lynx Canada, zebra snowflake and white clingfish.

The following comparisons will complete the deficit gaps, so that we have been installed; The end of real-time realities can be done compared to each other. These generic genomes will develop our understanding of the genotype-phenotype map. They also provide remarks for researchers who are in a position; try to understand the location of different genes to normal management guidance, and to others who are experiencing Investigating potential causes for development anomalies, birth defects and genetic diseases.

Other ongoing initiatives are not so focused on & # 39; Genome and / or Genome Genome for Comparative Genomic Works. Many of them are particularly "fishing trips," to see if there is something interesting to see; appear, or identify bureaucratic features that can be used for subsequent regulatory and conservation applications. For example, the recently published white geese genome decided that artificial genes were not as plentiful as expected to have a good white smell, and that there is a higher proportion of the transposable elements of white circus – DNA lines that can move from one place to a genome to another – than is normal.

Typically, such projects are not much more expensive, because they are not designed to achieve high-quality genome maps with full coverage of the genome. Unfortunately, they have limited resources for searching down the river. Generally, they are incomplete to be useful for biologists of development, and are not used constantly for the genotype-phenotype map to be understood.

However, they will inspires the public in a genomeic genetics, which already has a major impact on fields from basic biology to personal personal remedies. Given that more genomes of reconciliation are collected and compared, we can expect to increase our understanding of the architecturally-supported architectures; different life forms.


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