HNGO KONG – The international international humanitarian humanitarian conference is sponsored by the Hong Kong Science Academy, the Royal British Society, and the US National Academy – but not a scientific group the country.
The Academy of Chinese Sciences (CAS), which co-sponsored the first shape of this kind in 2015 in Washington with the people between Britain and America, this time.
In recent years, after months of designing up to the International Second World Collection on Human Genome Editing, China relaxed calmly, David Baltimore from the California Institute of Technology, chairman of the meeting organizing committee , to STAT. The previous development has not been reported and has not been announced by the organizers, who were difficult to discuss the reasons.
"CAS did not have a 500-person meeting [mainland] China and we needed to take the number of serving customers, "said Baltimore." So they went out. "At that time, the Hong Kong Academy of Sciences offered a place and sponsorship.
Other scientists involved in the planning months believe that there was more in the case of Beijing's incapacity. searching. "Initially we had a joint investment from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a roof was in Beijing," said an expert scientist on his / her; plan. "But it was clear that the pleasure was on the part [Chinese] government to entertain him at the moment and the transparency we wanted. "
The Chinese Academy did not respond to requests for comment.
His absence, and those of officials from the Chinese science ministry, do not play a leading player in the genome production without official representation. Science in China – – and how quickly the researchers have to & # 39; Moving to correct the diseases that are being possessed by preparing human invitations – however, it is expected to be a star.
On the evening of the summit, news brokerage about the amazing Chinese scientist's appeal for his / her. The first time, babies were born – couple girls – in the weeks passed by a gene that was prepared in memory. The DNA was changing, which the girls could go to their descendants, so that they could resist HIV disease. Other scientists said the work was too long and unsafe, and expressed as human proof.
In addition to the loss of the Chinese Academy, this conference is different from the name of 2015. Instead of "generating," this is the top of "genome editing": that change is The emergence of the power of technologies such as CRISPR, in labial animals and human cells, changes not only to individual genera, but at the same time others, Manage the genome as a bad manuscript to wait for the red-pencil-wielding editor. Global sessions show progress in CRISPR science, and & # 39; describes their governance and public opinion around the world, and take account of the ethical issues it rises.
At the 2015 meeting, a shoe science ministry officer built when he said, although China's strict rules about ginoma use in human situations, He can make sure that wild sites and clinics did not carry out exams they should not.
There have been facts for years that researchers in China move forward with exams by sending them up. use the preparation of a genome to change human humanitarian DNA in ways that scientists in the West have not been unhappy or disqualified. There are laws in some countries, including the US, and # 39; prohibited by the use of public funds to make the DNA converted from human embryos, even those that can not be done, just a few cells, and do not; going to aggression. Such "short-line editing" would be subtracted by descendants.
Scientists in China, compared to each other, marched forward. In 2015, biologists at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou performed their first test that was changing the DNA of human embryos, Describes the work in an uncertain online magazine after the most famous names to refuse the paper for ethical purposes. He was listening to him. Many scientists and others argued against the change of human genome in a way that would last for generations.
Since then, influential organizations such as the US National Academies and the British Council of Nuffield on Bioethics have supported the search of shortcuts, which can prevent hereditary diseases such as Huntington, sickle cell, Tay -Sachs, and more before a child is even born In the West But there are even candidates for human use; Visit a lot more research on how to make a short-line edition safely before attempting to try IVF's mind to be pregnant.
CRISPR's most important scientists say they are largely in the dark about the safety evidence that is essential to work in China before using CRISPR in IVF clinics. This summer, researchers led by Xingxu Huang from the University of ShanghaiTech that they were using a new format of " CRISPR's basic statements to rectify the morphism that causes Marfan's suspension in IVF embryos. No grabbing was tried. Huang, who has research with support from the Chinese government, speaks at her. the summit.
The main reason why the world's organizers were meeting in China "we believe that this is the world's most likely to move forward without taking a precise look at the type and # 39; we have in the US and UK, "said the scientist who spoke to throw the Chinese Academy.
"We will hear from a number of Asian scientists working on the preparation of human embryo," said Jennifer Doudna, head of CRISPR at the University of California, Berkeley, biochemist and member of the organizing committee. "I am particularly interested in listening to what they are doing and what they think. How much of their safety they think essential before entering the clinic? Is this what the general public understands and wants? Do people see it as proof or negligence? "
Few people who understand that even embryo are capable of editing, said Doudna. "My opinion is that there is a lot of people who do not know this," she said. "I am concerned that people outside the scientific community are caught where they are preserved."
Most people do not understand what would be a big step preparation. As Baltimore said, no translation has ever been in the past. "
Indeed or not, it may not be possible. "There has been an agreement that genome editing is sufficiently safe in IVF animations to eliminate disease," said Dr George Daley, who died at Harvard Medical School. "I still think it's too fast to use the technology in replication with the help" to cause diseases that cause diseases to cause disease. "But that is to be discussed actively at the top – what are the extra scientific advances that you need before that can be verified? My opinion is that we hear that science has grown enough in the last three years that we can think of a clinical translation way. "
Even Doudna, who was worried about the drafting of a shortcut, had already set up a private meeting in the early 2015, now; believe that "moving to a time when people begin to edit ginoma in human causes," to make instructions are harder.
The U.S. rules says that any CRISPR use of a patient is removing cell. All certificates need cells, regardless of who is missing; pay them, should be agreed by the Food and Drug Administration. He has illegally carried out the FDA to review recommended CRISPR practices in human situations.
Although China is sometimes shown to be using CRISPR in non-scientist ways in other places, there are incentives for people to be involved in ways that have been adopted "said internationally," said Baltimore. CRISPR would participate in IVF and allow them to move for nine months to break their scientific international consensus that it is too to do so, with the uncertainty about safety. "If something is not consistent with [research] Guides, they would meet unhappyly from the rest of the world, "he said." Chinese is very aware of that. They do not want to be regarded as a wild nation. "
Doudna will chair the session on public communication efforts, where experts from three countries will describe how they are going to do so. trying to educate the public about changing genome. In another session, representatives from seven countries from Tasmania and Singapore to China and the US will explain government policies on human genome editing, both translations (of embryos) and the less coherent controversial that is done in a child or adult for an existing disorder remedy. Such "hard editing" would not be taken over by future generations.
Many of the scientific displays will address what is needed to make a medical device and not only CRISPR. From the 2015 meeting, there has been "a lot of change" in what is known about the safety, accuracy, and effectiveness of CRISPR, Daley said. "For hard marks, at least 12 clinical tests using CRISPR-Cas9 have started."
They include one for beta thalassemia disease, with Vertex Pharmaceuticals and CRISPR Therapeutics, which is a. removing blood cells from patients, using CRISPR to correct illness that causes disease, and return the modified cells. Much of the surplus for cancer, and CRISPR use to change protective buttons and so do it; attacking tumors. Global sessions show progress on & # 39; Using CRISPR about severe blood problems, as well as the use of wild bears.
La Alta professor professor and biologist R. Alta Charo at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, a member of a panel organizing committee, believes that this is the right weight. "We still have a public interest with the least queries" of CRISPR, she said: "A German edition, which is the most difficult use to assess its risks and benefits, and to be to improve "- using CRISPR not to & # 39; disease treatment but to help someone look, strength or other features. People, added it, put together these bids – germine preparation for development, a.k.a. "babies designer" – "and we're out to the races".