Although helium is a rare part of Earth, it is completely in the Universe. It is, after hydrogen, the main part of the big stars and big planets. Despite its abundance, helium has only recently been found in a magnificent magnitude by an international team, and including stars from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland. The team, run by Genevan's researchers, has been looking closely and for its & # 39; The first time as this gas escapes from the atmosphere; Heated in an exoplanet, usually pushed by helium. The results are published ScienceSouth Westerly
Helium is the second most common element in the Universe. Determined from 2000 as one of the best tracers of the exoplanets environments, these planets tap on other stars than their; Sun, he gave 18 year astronomers to find. It was difficult to see it as a result of the most famous signature of helium, which is located in the abdominal, out of a field for its & Most of the tools previously used. The search was made earlier this year, with Hubble Space Telescope, which was difficult to explain. The members of the team from UNIGE, members of the National Center for Opportunity in Investigating Planet, aimed at targeting another telescope fitted with a modern instrument – spectrograph called Carmenes.
Finding colors of plans by Carmenes
Spectrograph damages the starlight of the colors that are at the same time. related to it, like a rainbow. Spectrograph measurement is a measure that shows the number of colors that may be displayed. Although human eyes can not differentiate any color outside an appropriate camera without a camera, it is possible for Hubble's eye to find hundreds of colors there. This was enough to mark a colorful helium signature. The Carmenes instrument, which was placed on the 4-meter telescope at Calar Alto's theater in Andalusia, Spain, has been able to identify more than 100 colors in the antibiotics!
This high visibility arrangement allowed the team to look at the situation and asthma asthma distance in the upper atmosphere of Neptune's blue exoplanet, 4 times larger than Earth. Located in the Cygnus (Swan) communication, 124 years light from home, HAT-P-11b is "Neptune warm" (550 ° C chance), Twenty times closer to its star than Earth from sunshine. "We believed this astronomy could influence the quality of this exoplanet," said Romain Allart, a PhD student at UNIGE and his / her. first author of the study. "The new ideas are so precisely that the exoplanet atmosphere is undoubtedly brushed out of the radiation and escapes into space," he says.
Planning was crushed by Helium
These ideas are supported by a numerical imagination, led by Vincent Bourrier, co-author of the survey and member of the European FOUR ACES project *. Many thanks to the mind, it is possible to look at the helium projection: "helium has been swept away from the daily and planetary side of the night at more than 10km km / h," a & # 39; explains Vincent Bourrier. "Because it is so lightweight, it easily escapes from drawing a planet and creating an expanded cloud". This brings HAT-P-11b a shaped shaped balloon with Helium.
This product will open a new window to keep track of the real atmosphere of the atmosphere that is; related to the worst exoplanets. The comments of the Carmenes show that similar studies, which have only long been thought-by-minded, can be performed with more accuracy with a ground-based telescopic with proper equipment. "This is an interesting time for searching for air signatures in exoplanets," says Christophe Lovis, senior lecturer at UNIGE and co-author of the survey. Indeed, soldiers UNITS also play a great part in the design and design of our clients. Introducing two new strings of great resolution, similar to Carmenes. One of them, known as the SPIRou, has just begun a prominent campaign from Hawaii, and the UNIGE rhetoric department offers the first experiments of the Undertaking Submissions Plans (NIRPS), which will be sent introduced in Chile by the end of 2019. "This is a product that contributes to the scientific community's interest for these instruments. Their number and geographical distribution allow us to cover the whole spectrum, which & #, To clear exoplanets, "a & # 39; finishing Lovis.
* ACES, The Future of the Excellence of Exoplanets with Spectroscopy, is a project funded by a European Research Council (ERC) European Union Innovation Research Project (agreement of the European Union Innovation and Innovation Program) donation n ° 724427).
Université de GenèveSouth Westerly South Westerly