If you're thinking how long & # 39; If you are willing to stand according to buying the new hot holiday gift, scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine say that the answer can be found in the biological rules that are & # 39 ; Manage how animals provide for food and other benefits.
They report that the results of a new study in people confirm the theory known as "best sucking", which is find that these animals are used to maximize their value as they value the prize themselves and the time and effort spent to get that prize. They also add to evidence that the prize is richer, the faster people moving to get. In other words, if that amazing gift sells really, not only do you spend more, you may want to. grow faster to stretch it.
A description of the study was published online on 15 October National Academy of Sciences AffairsSouth Westerly
"Because animals that maximize the best cultivation stay longer, in total, and that there are more appropriate features that are in place; Supporting behaviors are therefore highly preserved in development, so they may provide information to people as well as other animal behaviors, "said Reza Shadmehr, Ph .D., any engineering professor physiologist at Johns Hopkins University Medicine School. "We believe that the speed that an animal moves to the next, which we mean is lively, related to a & # 39; this principle is also in people. "
To investigate a problem in people, Shadmehr and his colleagues looked at the distance and movement of eye movements among 92 people (average age 27; 51 people and 41 women) while they were ; look at computer screenshots. It's a good model to do & # 39; Analyze the eye movements between objects (movements called "saccades") to analyze the award systems, according to Shadmehr, as the large number of sharks – 2.5 of them second, on average – gives much information about the Indian Options.
On the computer screen, scientists exhibit images of human imagery (with a majority of people focusing on) as a valuable "reward" and misleading items -natural, such as a door, such as the prize that is not so valuable in different locations on the screen. They accounted for how quickly the research partners put their focus from one item to another and how long & # 39; and the ball was held or opposed to their views.
In a sub-group of 16 of the 92 research partners, the sciences also managed to control the time; Subjects could look at an image against a person. As researchers reduced their expected time, the participants moved their eyes, faster, faster between the face images.
"On behalf of these experiments, people confirm our best models of work, which keep that when the rich environment is that animals tend to move faster between benefits, "says Shadmehr.
"Imagine children during Halloween," he says, "when they have a very short time to attract a neighbor who is well-known for giving generous generous messages. Some of them run, not to travel casually, from home to house. "
In another test with 17 of the 92 subjects, scientists showed two images on the screen, sometimes face and other times that were rude. When scientists showed more face, the participants spent less time to look at one individual face and more time. move the eyes between the faces.
"This tells us when the rich environment (even more face), the partners did not move almost all the benefits, but spent more time focusing on each prize individually, "said Shadmehr. He says that researchers have been watching this situation among the crows on the coastline; Pacific which will provide beaches for clams. They, such as the human subjects in the computing exams, and energy excavation for clam, and # 39; size decision and only open if it was big enough for the effort to qualify.
Surprisingly researchers, Shadmehr reports that any test failed to match current theories of reward and effort. A group of 22 research partners showed a series of pictures placed at a distance beyond the screen, which would require a wider move to monitor each image. In other words, participants needed to spend more effort to win the prize. A dot appeared on the screen where the next page appeared.
Current wisdom would say that animals should preserve their efforts and their. slower pace of rewards. But the opposite thing happened. Research partners have made more effort to win the prize by moving their eyes twice as soon as images of any kind when they were closer from images that were closer together.
Shadmehr considers that unexpected results could be explained by clicking on " Understand the changes to how some people value some of the awards. "The history of a huge effort to achieve an award can make that prize much more valuable, and we will add more energy to get that prize," says Shadmehr.
The researchers also note that there are strong differences among people. Some people have been twice as effective as eye movements than others. And results may vary between age and gender, too. Shadmehr says that most of the 14-year-olds are usually the fastest eye movements and this speed is a decline in every ten years of life.
Shadmehr says that understanding of the principles of fitness can be a great deal than telling us about preparing wise food or gifts. Maybe it also informs scientists about situations that are in place; Human movement and knowledge connectivity, such as Parkinson's, a disease that affects movement and memory, and depression, marked by slower movement as well as sorrow and other smile problems.
Shadmehr also suggests that a solution can understand understanding of economic theory, especially how we make value choices. "The way we identify choice and choice can be partially measured by rigorous energy measurement," says Shadmehr.
Speed Speed Glossary: A powerful indicator of more positive decisions
Tehrim Yoon et al, Control control and decision making in construction, National Academy of Sciences Affairs (2018). DOI: 10.1073 / pnas.1812979115