TIn his week, scientists in England stated that "London patients" was the second person ever to receive; long-term HIV animal. For the 36.9 million people suffering from HIV worldwide, the news was a clear vision of hope. It has been a crucial moment in the HIV treatment that is a An important question: does the treatment of a "London patient" also help everyone with HIV?
Only one other person has been vaccinated after receiving this medicine: the "patient in Berlin" that did that in 2008. The patient in London is the only person who Continue on, even though "Dusseldorf patients" could be reinforced as third. It is said that the three are "long-term", "cured" is not responsible; At present, it is still too early to tell.
All three of these patients received that bone tumor donations from donors who had a specially specific genetic damage called CCR5 delta 32. The damage caused to the virus is impossible HIV-1 should be excavated into protective cells, making them a opposed them.
The CCR5 mod is the only one involved in Chinese scientist He Jiankui's experiments, trying to innovate twin girls to reproduce anti-HIV. Although these enthusiastic experiments are very lively out of the problem, CCR5 mass is a n; Genealogy promise generates gene to cure one strain of HIV.
"Gene therapy attempted to provide a profile of the patient of ten years ago for Berlin's success," said Gero Hütter Ph.D., the hematologist who was in charge of a patient in Berlin. InversePost-E-mail "But there are better ways of working. The new patient may be able to include gene medicine methods again."
What we learn from Berlin, London, and Dusseldorf
Gene therapy is one of the most susceptible roads to a real treatment for HIV, the macrobiology of Keck's School of Medicine, and immunological professor Paula Cannon, Ph.D. InverseThe Post-Fun, however, shows how to use the CCR5 gene so safely, courteously, and effectively.
That is the six-million query question.
"That's the question that is six million dollars," said Cannon Inverse. "Indeed, as gene pharmacists, we are happy to see what is necessary in that medicine that has given these remedies and we can review them."
What we see in the patients of London and Berlin, says Cannon, as a result of two steps a process that has led to the vitality of HIV. Both of them had HIV but they also had a fracture, a cancer that affects the bone marrow cells – which are, essentially, a & # 39; removal of cellular cells. Both of them were getting aggressive chemotherapy that aimed at the muscle cells that killed her body. He has extracted many of the cancer cells with HIV disease, but also put out their defensive system.
"These drugs are so poisonous to other cells in the body, and especially the bones of bone marrow cells that are needed to bring you new blood and protect cells," Cannon explained. "The problem with chemotherapy that provides you for these cans, sure, will help you get your cancer, but a few weeks later you will die because you will not have an indirect protection system because he's gone out. "
In order to replace those cells, patients needed a massive spinal donor donation. In these cases, however, the dealer too to go to & # 39; CCR5 wishes. So, when the bone spinal cell cells that were issued reconstructed the protection of the patient's protection systems began, the new cells were causing CCR5 damage. So, they can not & # 39; virus virus – and as a result, levels of virus in their system were in place; decline.
Their HIV levels have not left zero, but they have grown sufficiently enough so that a patient can stop the antiretroviral medicine drugs that need a patient with HIV daily to control the disease.
Hütter says that these patients show us that the CCR5 mass is working hard to do it; fight against HIV. "I'm very happy he worked so well," he says about the patient of London. "I think the second patient is at least as important as the first one because he confirms his / her main idea in CCR5 withdrawn to HIV patients. "
The problem is that there is a & # 39; Giving the long-term chemotherapy protection system is capable of generating HIV treatment in a gene. For anything, bone marrow replacing is an emergency procedure. Scientists who expect to simply bring cells into an instrument with CCR5 damage to the body of a patient or their need to do so; Destroy the cells of protection that have HIV-related diseases first.
If you just insert the gene the trick, for example genome editorial edits CRISPR makes it a powerful option. But if it is necessary to break an aggressive protection system, it can stop this medicine of the traces.
"If it appears that there are not enough CCR5 cellulals enough enough, that's a problem," said Cannon. "It is a very dangerous thing to bring people's drugs that attack the cells of protection, especially at the levels that can get the cancer patterns, it would not be right because someone was HIV. "
How efficient is Gene Therapy cure for HIV?
Regardless of the treatment of genealogy to a flexible treatment for HIV, it relies on the destruction of a defensive system essential to work.
But even if it seems necessary, Cannon says that genealogy can still be an effective way of detection of HIV infection.
"Clinical tests continue where patients' cells have been removed, CCR5 has been made negative and then come back in," she said. "If those patients are able to cure themselves, or be able to control their virus, you may find a situation where they are not completely cure of HIV but the new CCR5 protection system is capable of maintaining everything. "
Importantly, there are drugs already Helping patients to control HIV in this way. The retroviral drugs mentioned above will help to & # 39; controlling the disease, and those at risk for HIV can take daily, casualty drugs. This process is called pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and can reduce the infection of HIV by 90%. In the United States, a health and human health recommendation for these drugs is available to people at risk, and thus stop spread of the virus.
We can be better.
There is a cannon that a genetic approach to successful generation can be a? Reducing the need for a daily delay of drugs for HIV patients – this is not a real reason, considering many of the patients; a patient with HIV already stigma and discrimination due to the situation.
But there is a disruption to spreading or controlling a different situation from having a & find a permanent remedy. These three issues that make real commitments may be an attempt to answer the important questions about the destruction of immune cells that determine whether this treatment is CCR5. Hütter and Cannon both believe that this is possible.
"We can be better," said Cannon. "We recognize that there is a reason to focus on these remedies. When we get them – and we will do because we are people, and we are isolated and can We celebrate things – I think this would be a great opportunity for many people. "