How ciliary electricity streams maintain reliable trust



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Reynold, a specialist geologist at the Monell Center, is similar to dealing with major questions in knowledge. Belief: Paola Nogueras / Monell Center

Imagine trying to find out how something works when something is done; Happening in a room less than a meat person: one quadrillionith of liter. Now, two scientists have a nose for a mystery solution using a combination of mathematical modules, theology and computing symbols to explain how cells are cellular. Communicating effectively in well-restrictive areas such as olfactory cilia, where odors are detected. The conclusions provide information on encrypted checks and communications in the future olfactory system and also in other places that are connected to the strange system.


Johannes Reisert, Ph.D., a specialist of Monell Center, says that "It's difficult to explore the Ion routes and how their streams can change Cells. Our model-based methodology enables us to gain a better understanding of the quality of jobs, but also the work at the end of small strengths such as dendrites, where geography is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. "

In the study, published online before printing National Academy of Sciences Affairs, the science asked why cars are receptive olfactory cells; Communicate with the brain using a series of different electrical events than they are used with sensitive cells in the visual or message systems.

Olfaction starts when it's in a process like a key that's responding to a lock, a chemical molecule flies flying through the nasal pussy to connect with an olfactory maker that is attached to an unusual oblique wall inside the nose. The olfactory wheels are located on cilia, long-long, long-distance thread structures than 0.000004 inch in diameter, which stretches from the strange cell into the mucus.

The odorant receptor tiesheets begin to embedded complex folders inside their & # 39; olfactory chill, known as transduction, which means it gives an electric signal to tell the brain that odor is found.

The transition process comes to an end with the opening of poles called some channels, which are located in the wall of the strange cells. The poles are open to allow for molecules (ion) to be cut electronically or negatively to flow in and out of their cell. chill. This at the end will alter the total electricity charge of cells to a state that is not so negative, and that is start a signal to the brain.

Most parts of ion are selected for a particular bit, which is & # 39; including positively cut sodium (Na+) Ionian no chloride (Cl– –). There is a flow through its channel in each side that generates electricity flows.

Replacement cells in the visual and messenger systems are dependent on a tremendous flow of finance that can be used to detect an electric signal. Compared to that, the olfactory system also depends on the negative financial currents that flow out.

By using a number of methods for the development of a testable module of olfactory photocopying and currents, Reitert and its partner, Jurgen Reingruber, neuroscientist enumeration, Ph.D., from the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris, can explain why the olfactory system works differently.

The researchers showed that they are dependent on Cl– – instead of Na+ as part of the disorders of displacement that offers a number of benefits that will enable olfactory cells to respond to more consistent odors.

One fuel to the olfactory system is that the numbers of Na+ and other positive oils in the outer mucus cells olively change the role of an outside-nose environment. This makes it difficult for the olfactory cells to depend on the outside of Na+ flow as a reliable part of the movement response.

The olfactory cells that oppose this problem by going to & # 39; using Cl– – currently entering the inside of a & # 39; chill, where co-collections are more sustainable, making the Cl– – Generally now more accurate.

"Think that you've been swimming in the ocean and your nose has salted salt. That means that there is a lot more sodium outside the cells Olfactory, but they have to be able to work reliably at least if you've just swim in the ocean or sitting in your kitchen, "says Reisert. "To replace the Outside Islands+ currently with Cl– – there are ions that move inside the cell to the outside of the cell; show that there is a problem. "

The modules also showed that they were using their & # 39; record that flows out– – there are streams that allow the olfactory cells to protect the unfinished area of ​​the cilia, where the olfactory traction is a; happening. This is because positive aggression introduces additional water into getting into the area, which may include osmotic damping and associated structural damage to the cilia.

The conclusions explain how the olfactory system is capable of working in particular; Despite the challenging physical setting of an unstable environment outside and the small amount. As an example of the powerful value of a basic science, this modeling method can now be used to explore similar questions in other parts of the strange system.


Explore more:
New defender for your smell food

More information:
Ca2 + -activated Cl-current is to ensure robust and reliable rod criteria are in olfactory neutrons, National Academy of Sciences Affairs (2018). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1816371116

Mention magazine:
National Academy of Sciences Affairs

Provided by:
Monell Chemical Saucer Center

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