How to put goods away | Space


Regardless of the objective of achieving the metadata, the engineers need to solve two basic problems: how to get the spooky travelers off Earth (and enter the orbit to the moon or moon) and how they will return them again. With decades of experience in moving into space, the world's space powers are unoccupied to chemical rockets as the best way to put astronauts on launched. The question engineers still have a debate: What is the best way on the ground?

Boeing and SpaceX, which are launched by NASA's Commercial Visit programs, send astronauts into the International Speech Center next year, and, Responding to the two key problems of space opening with innovative technology, economics and gee-whiz for the important challenges ahead. Next, one of the most prominent elements of the spaceship designed in private in the last century will hear: they are shaped as a capsule, counting on the high shades, and brace of parachutes to pull them from a operating distance of 17,000 mph to a speed that people can live when they hit the Earth's surface.

It was expected that the space corridor would finish all when it was done; First aircraft in 1981, providing comfort as well as air conditioning & # 39; as he was traveling on peace paths. And in creating the next generation of space behavior, SpaceX first tried to try the future. Elon Musk and his team were pushing for a new kind of country, a man who was responsible for sticky rockets, instead of parachute, to slowly roll on his / her; boat and legs to balance the disaster-disasters- removed. "That's how a 21st century spacecraft should be ashore," shooting Musk in 2014, "anywhere on Earth with helicopter accuracy." SpaceX has succeeded in success by Landing for its Payroll Payroll Clocks – The Falcon 9th First Level Regularly, And Interestingly, Landing Up on a Shore Board or Back at Cape Canaveral . But such a thing lets on with live resistants inside and # 39; Needing time and money that NASA was not willing to commit to the mission of having a major economic sales point. Anyway, that is the room that expects to & # 39; think that her / her wife is a leaving their approach in 2017. So the parachute came out again.

NASA's splashdowns astronutics have been quite distressed but historically awful at fifty years. But they had wild things in their lives. Gus Grissom was drowned after the second Mercury plane in 1961 – a famous event was made more famous by the illusion of the 1983 film The right thingNext Post The following year, Scott Carpenter landed 250 miles away from the course and spent three hours in a life race before the USS freed SnowSouth Westerly

The Splashdown campaigns continued after the moon campaigns even after more than ten years of rapid technology advances. There were 1974 Skylab 4 confidence teams and the Apollo-Soyuz Testing Project a year later; dropping down in the harbor for a while, when heavy mills took the paralysis and put them into landing crafts. The problems of Apollo-Soyuz have been made worse by the casualty that was entered into the cabin; the astronauts needed to catch an oxygen mask, which was harder to reach while they were in a bad face. The crew member, Vance Brand, came out when he was involved, and a crew member had to put his body on him. In both cases, the "correction" areas outside the capsule were working as expected. The vessels turned back to the surface, and the astronauts went on well without harm.

Indeed, there is another option to come ashore at sea: a & # 39; landing on land, which the Soviet Romanian program and then has been doing since its inception. The Soyuz spacecraft, which was first launched in 1967 and still strong, going back to the Earth on large sects, narrow Kazakhstan. It's not the most comfortable experience, a report that's a? passing passengers. "It's a bit like a car crash crash series," said Michael Lopez-Alegria, an old NASA astronutist who returned from the Soyuz International Spi Station in 2007. "After seven months in a place, it's not a feeling good. "

Soyuz was in an accident in 1976, when the capsule dropped again from the course and hit a frozen lake almost five miles from the shore, at night, in the middle of its corner. winter. Rescuers, who arrived at the vessel that were converted to a minimum of nine hours later, did not disturb the shoe for two hours because they assumed that the cosmetics had died . The Soviets remained hard, though they never returned.

Oh, good days, when the US hurricane came into the sea and on Russian on-shore tools. In the photograph: Apollo's unprotected capsule in 1968


Soyuz will burn his supporters just before it affects. In short, the US capsule will do both.

(NASA / Bill Ingalls)

When a capsule left indicates the land, astronauts are not left for hours to up and down on waves. But they may be cold. Here, the Soyuz reclamation team will meet the & # 39; crew on a day blizzardy Kazakh.

(NASA / Bill Ingalls)

Despite this, Lopez-Alegria would return from space to terra firma, with the option. "Watering seems to have made a big flop, so I'm not sure that its impact is much smaller," he said. "And after that I think I would be happier on land rather than going around the ocean." Ken Bowersox, an old man who is a landing in Soyuz, thinking land is safer than water. "On land you can add some rough tough and still pull out of the carriage," he says. "If things do not go well in water, it can be very interesting." Soyuz Bowersox's description in 2003 could be a "bit of rough attack" to be the truth. The capsule went on ballistic that brought hundreds of miles from the target. But "we were only a couple of hours," he remembers. "Out on the water, it would not be very comfortable." Regarding its impact, Bowersox is a It compares it with carriers carrying the planes it used as a Navy pilot. "It's getting your attention, but it's not worse than a carnival trip," he says.

NASA investigated land ashore at various points in the pre-shuttle age, but refused for a number of reasons. At that time, a group that did not have a vacant, empty space in the United States in the related states. At least once they were compared to the open, unobtrusive location of Kazakh's planning, they did not; Even the southwest desert can even be & # 39; competition, with its rivers, its burns, and remote towns. The target was not straightforward and reliable enough. What's the country with a lot of open water: an interesting two-bay induction, a coastal immersion site, and the existing marine infrastructure to get astronauts from the water.

Other important considerations in these land surveys are the importance of spaceboat. The water may be terminated by smuggling, but there is still some rainfall; Back-to-shore needs additional feature to make up for the hard stop, such as the retro rockets at Soyuz when there are several feet away from the ground for a final brake in the seconds before it is likely. This equipment is made for a heavier carriage, however, and in the early 1960s, NASA did not trust in time, and # 39; expressed for a while, did not think they would get all the weight to the moon (see bar-side).

But technology is becoming better and aims are changing. So, Boeing returned to the land tourism quarry when he started on his / her; Commercial team carrier, Starliner, was designed around 2010. "It's beneficial to return to land by sea by accessing the crew and its entire cart on board", Michael McCarley, a Boeing appointee who worked on the corridor through the final airfield before moving to the Starliner project as the lead engineer to go back. But the importance of this capsule is still a problem – or as McCarley says, "the big challenge."

Soyuz may have been the big challenge of the year that the Beatles recorded Sgt. Pepper, but the Russian ship can not only cramp in three spectacle teams. The seven-pass extended passenger carriage has been crucial to landing instead of the retro rockets with airbags. The Starliner is responsible for six of them (seventh, middle, used only to enter emergency water). They are nitrics and oxygen brushes such as those in vehicles but are designed as bicycle tires with separate inner and outer seats. Outdoor banners are outbound that will focus on landing, length & the inner tube is still stubborn. I hope.

Not only does the system have a lighter bag than the Soyuz rockets, it should be easier to eat the body; is declining half a year in the play, McCarley says. Ken Bowersox is very enthusiastic. "If you look at the people who jump out of properties and their air flight land, that should be very reasonable," he said.

Then McCarley's personal petrol project: the seat. In some way, a spell capsule is returned to the Earth under pharatites; Awaiting the atmosphere at about 4 Gs before it stops suddenly, says Lopez-Alegria, who is still sitting on NASA's human research advisory advice. That compares to 1.5 Gs who suffer for a & # 39; horizontal place to move so far. But the influence of the chapters of the astronauts hangs, literally, where and how they are; sit. Not to lie in real life, no other human and other essential columns are designed to take 4 Gs into a direct position. Soyuz passengers have already been repaired, with a seating line designed individually. But McCarley was committed to improving it with today's ergonomics. He started with a series of plywood in his barrel.

"The whole concept for the city has not changed from the plywood model, but we have added more advanced material," McCarley says. The company also has a 3D printing technology for shaping a standard set for every Starliner traveler. Given that the room area was available, this included intense study of human body types.

McCarley, a 6 & 39 "1" and "Starliner, Melanie Weber" engineer, which is a bit remote of five feet, is designed for external boundaries that are allowed. Excavation is more depths in the indicators, the engineers that work for a variety of corporate types, which they gave with the names of pets such as The Orangutan ("long arms they reach over the capsule," McCarley clarifies) , not the T-Rex (torso spreads with short arms). By designing a range of the team, the team will be better able to tailor each chamber by using spinmer's body screens .

The Boeing team also wanted to improve the Soyuz parachute. For reasons that have now been lost on the scientific history of its cold war, a series of pilot parkers, drogue, and finally the main pages are from one side of the horse, and then with the pyrotechnic distribution of a rigging system who will try a capsule to hang straight down. Lopez-Alegria describes the product as "a beautiful move by side, such as Wild Toast Mr Toad." Boeing is a promises to settle the settlement with two drovewalks for equity, and then three main taxes for additional sustainability, without diversification.

Where the capsule is located, the Starliner team is more comfortable with the way they are doing the NASA's early engineers. There is a list of five sites in the second half of the White Sands Range Range in New Mexico, the Dugway Proving Ground in Utah, Base Air Force Edwards in California, and Wilcox Beach in Arizona – since they chose primary and short-term conservation areas before the end of each resolution. Landscapes have been cracking for long-awaited phone pockets and other obstacles, and carried out extensive environmental and cultural surveys to ensure the safety of astronomers and integrity of the earth. The Dugway Proving Ground, for example, was set up by the Army during World War II to try chemical and biological weapons, and also acts as an ancient financial perspective of Indigenous industrial materials which is a & # 39; 13,000 years ago.

When the Starliner-Eric Boe (sitting on the left) games, Chris Ferguson (sitting on the right), and Nicole Mann's coming back to the Earth after her; The first crew minister next year, they are all heard by a seat that is made from their body, especially scans.

(NASA / Bill Ingalls)

Instead of the heavy Soyuz protagonists, six six-way Boe designed a light air for Starliner (hereby confirmed by the Langley Research Center) which should be something more comfortable when he returned to back to Earth.


In Nevada, Boeing is able to verify the settlement system on its device; capsule Starliner.


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Although boeing engineers were very intimidating about the deep knowledge of the caption to the hard ground, SpaceX started its work by doing so; dream about Mars. In January 2011, the 15-year-old video company had been sent by her & # 39; showing a trapezoidal quick spacecraft, which meant they were; come into a straight-line attack, with a fire fired out of the station's four corner corners at around 30 corners. Elon Musk, in his voice, says that he "comes ashore by a gear, such a kind [how Apollo 11’s] An eagle came on her moon. "He was looking cool.

But those who had been shot on SuperDraco, as Musk was subsequently named, aimed to do more than to do; Reduce 14,000-pin Crew Dragon caps on a helicopter pipe anywhere on Earth. SpaceX stated that they would safely take this boat to Mars, where the atmosphere is too fast to attract anything from that pressure by parachute. The worst thing that fell to date was that NASA's rover Curiosity, which was about one-seventh of that mass and, indeed, human passengers do not weaken.

SpaceX prototype published a Dragon Crew in 2014 with a great hope to expect two planets. In 2016, he sent a video model of a test module confidently creating several lanes above a platform in Texas. Then Musk called him away. Although Dragon Crew was able to land enough, he said at the station and development conference in July 2017, that he would "take a lot of effort to fit for safety." In addition, he gave "a better way" to land on Mars, and the information it holds under trees. The capsule still carries SuperDraco engines, but will only be used if it is moved. (See "Prohibition!" Oct./Nov. 2018.) A typical Landscaping Crew appears to be a footnote for an exploration history, although SpaceX is still working on the technology to other vehicles, including the BFR rocket re-generation – an unexpected space bus that promotes up to 100 passengers to the moon or further afield. His first pay maker for that trip, the three-year-old Japanese Yusaku Maezawa, was named in September.

Fortunately, its company has shown Plan B for a & # 39; get a team to the space station. Although SpaceX was fiddling with the subscription system for a crew ship, when this magazine was going to go to # 39; pressing the freight vessel, forwarded 15 successful attempts to state and out of the space station, and the capsule was definitely gutting down. So far, the company has reused four of the capsules despite the saltwater.

Dragon na Creige is about 50 per cent heavier than the charging mode, so SpaceX is delivering its & # 39; plus rent with a system of four parachute that exceeds higher than its & # 39; carriage, causing more disturbance than the classical triangle that was given over the capsules of the 1960s. In addition to Boeing & Starliner also, the company statement is a n; means: "The Dragon paraiseat system is the most efficient system ever designed in terms of packaging density and the ability of tricking to move."

There is a difference that is still more aware of today's days using SpaceX small flotilla to & # 39; get back dragon astronomers at sea. Published plans will require one 164-foot ship, the Links, with the help of a number of boats that can move closer to the chapsal bent. An Links it is fitted with helipad to take ferries quickly to land if necessary.

That is very different to the Navy shipwreck of the US shipwreck that came out to meet room passengers from the 1960s and 70s. There are not less than 24 naval vessels to & # 39; waiting for the vigor of John Glenn after his first orbital flight in England in 1962, with the Air Force in humorous conservation. However, more rapid stones grew rapidly, however, and the friendly party went down to four vessels with the latest Apollo's last plane in 1972. So, SpaceX's removable team had not been as minimalist than it would be like. (A company has a more comprehensive system, jointly with Air Force rescue teams, for astronautic revival after the stop box)

SpaceX is also committed to extending its renewable technology to Dragon Dragon. The team has had extensive knowledge of the hunting of water and the impediment of extinguishing from responding to four of their cargo boats. But now SpaceX is not just agreed to coach fly with a new spacecraft, and Creating a situation where Boeing uses a wireless cap before SpaceX. Rocket viewers think their temporary maintenance is.

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It is unavoidable that the solution of human space remains in worst situations. "I always think, Is there something hidden we do not know?" Mike McCarley at Boeing. "Did I look behind each door and the back of each closet? It's a kind of personal neurosis, but also a professional neurosis." Since the time of a room in the 1960s, it looks like a human residence to & # 39; It seems that there is an inevitable delay in ensuring that there are core corrections – from thweaks only that the engineers are capable of complete immune systems as a SpaceX promotional attack scheme. At the beginning of its program, commercial crew objectives were targeted for 2015. They are currently targeting mid 2019.

None of these should be able to state that private contractors are able to; relying on NASA on a regular basis, and from future and future astronauts, regardless of the way they continue. "For me, I do not care. Both are going to work," Ken Bowersox will, finished. "It's an economic decision to come down on land or by sea."

This program does not have a & # 39; Delays on a clear path: the airships are different, attractive and renewable systems and everyone aims to find a new exciting chapter in spatial research, where private companies bring new projects from asteroid mining to Mars colonization. "This is very appealing in many ways," said Lopez-Alegria. "This is the first time the government has to freeze the frost of the size it will use. It will be a revival of species." That's a door opening that he and many others , willing to walk through. Lopez-Alegria's current gig is currently head of business development for Axiom Space, which wants to build privately funded to the station at a projected cost of $ 1.5 billion.

Initially, however, the new commercial vehicles and the dramatic ban – not only for Earth, but for their first time in almost ten years, will come to their own country.

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