"If the Brazilian people believe that Petrolão is the biggest crack throughout the country, wait until they can see what they have done at BNDES," said a switched image to be in the WhatsApp days before the second round of president elections.
There were several others that showed jobs funded by a bank abroad – some with the phrase "ah, if it was in the North East", with the symbol $ instead of "s".
The breadth of publications was wide. On 22 October and 23, a week before the election of the next president, BNDES was sent to & # 39; The main theme of conversation for hundreds of public bodies with the WhatsApp Monitor project – half of the 60 shared images on those days was on the # 39; bank development.
His controversy about the BNDES is a common issue in the speeches at his & # 39; President Jair Bolsonaro (PSL) in the future – the supporters of those who used WhatsApp are the largest in the elections. In a Twitter post on 8 November, Bolsonaro made a commitment to "open the BNDES black box" in the early administration, and "tell the Brazilian people what they did with their money in recent years."
Bolsonaro also said that the next president on BNDES, Joaquim Levy, opened the "black box", "it is out" of the post, according to the text that was released by the papers.
But, after all, is there a "black box" of the BNDES? And what could it appear?
The simple answer was that the bank, in fact, kept a lot of secret information and refused to give information. But that has changed since 2015, following heavy pressures from the newspapers and disciplinary bodies. From then on, the BNDES has published information about its loans – not just those that are currently, but also the time, which includes The jobs made during PT governments.
"BNDES is very passionate and clear about what is happening in the bank. Unquestionably enough, BNDES is even more advanced than other international banks," explaining Sérgio Lazzarini, an economist of Insper, who is Investigating the relationship between the public and private sectors and the analysis of bank data for more than ten years.
Usually there is an example of what the BNDES is publishing, and is usually a & # 39; Publish other public development banks, are the funding agreements related to overseas jobs.
The Federal Audit Office (TCU), a federal and federal agency; Monitoring public accounts, saying that it has been received from the bank "all the information submitted" – depending on what happened before 2015, when asked "different information and documents with the court denied by her "BNDES."
TCU and BNDES will launch a data platform to & # 39; This month, which shows the flow of money spreading each loan over time.
So, most of the information that is displayed is; Judging for their complaint is already available online. On the other hand, those who want more information, such as loan investigation information, are loaned.
However, BNDES states that this data is protected by fiscal and banking democracy and that their distribution of capital capital impacts. In other words, by showing their level of risk, companies can have the business. The courts are reviewing it; decision on whether or not to show that data.
What data on loans are open for consultation?
Company-owned company leaflets are beneficial, loan balances, flat rates, payment terms, types of warranties available today. You can consult the data on the BNDES website or download full files.
Therefore, we know, for example, that Odebrecht is the main beneficiary of loan methods from the BNDES to fund freight and civil construction services – in other words, the construction of overseas jobs. R $ 9 billion for projects to & # 39; contractor – 65% of the total paid by this department bank.
Another example: it is also possible to consult all actions for the benefit of JBS – who also faced controversy.
The BNDES continued to find out what it got from the Government's contributions – and what has already been returned. This is important because the Finance Department is nothing less than the state's main money.
Above, in 2008, the Finance Department began to fund its & # 39; BNDES to increase the loan size of a Bank – for example, to fund jobs from the Fàs Acceleration Program (PAC), to help Petrobras with investment and financial sectors that were then considered strategic by the government .
This created a liability, which requires BNDES to return to the Finance Department – another target of criticism. The data shows BNDES R $ 416 billion from the Treasury. And he returned £ 309 billion.
So, if BNDES has a profit on the one hand, giving money and money; tax payments to the State (they were around R $ 130 billion between 2001 and 2016), on the other hand, the bank is funded by its own State.
"It's a realistic situation, it's like bank bank loans and using money to invest," said Lazzarini.
But it is important to confirm that the main aim is not to; BNDES make profit and provide resources to the State. Created during the Getúlio Vargas administration in 1952, the purpose of its bank is to give money to the economy of Brazil, with long-term loans and competitive levels of interest (half of those paid With private banks), both for state and city governments and businesses.
Therefore, BNDES has a different objective from other public banks, such as Banco do Brasil and Caixa Econômica. You can not open an account with BNDES, for example. You do not have to borrow money for buying a car or a house.
The importance of the BNDES in fostering economic activity in Brazil is large: the bank is accounted for about half of the total funding for legal units with a payment period over five years.
Development banks are in a number of other countries in the world, such as Germany, Japan, France, South Korea, as well as China. The reason is also: to fund the development of their countries with long-term jobs.
But where does the money go? The loan appendix includes structural jobs paid by the Union, and # 39; Publicity and Partnership These are priorities, rail roads, roadways, basic healing initiatives, hydro-electric plants, wind-energy parks.
There are also loans to the private sector to develop activities in Brazil and abroad. There is a list of diverse private or private beneficiaries including companies such as Vale, Petrobras, Embraer, BRF and Natura.
It is a stimulus for the private sector that lives in the biggest disputes. BNDES has been the biggest benefits in recent years, major companies are at the heart of corruption surveys – such as Odebrecht and JBS.
Historically, BNDES data were not published
But the publication of this information is very recent. For many years, the BNDES lived in a secret position.
In order to consider, in 2012 a month after the implementation of the Access to Information Law, Fernando Pimentel Development Minister made bank secret documents dealt with by Cuba and Angola governments.
Next year, the old President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva interviewed Africa and asked if he wanted more prominence in the BNDES. "I do not know what publicity needs are in a bank. I think the BNDES should have the same publicity to the Boston, Itaú and Bradesco Bank …" , Lula replied.
Unlike the BNDES, the three banks are named by private Lula.
TCU can not access BNDES data. "The bank is now a box in the public administration," said BNDES. "The BNDES opposes every effort to monitor the TCU more deeply," he said in 2015, Public at the Union Court of Justice (TCU), Júlio Marcelo de Oliveira, in a debate in the -Seanadh.
This uncertainty made the BNDES trying to make a strong criticism. Control, Transport and media organizations put pressure on the. bank to open the data.
Initially the first time started in 2015, unexpectedly. "Dominican Republic Transport contracted BNDES on its website, which came to its members here in Brazil." B & # 39; find, finance, find Indiana Jones, "remember the economist Lazzarini, kind, unsuccessful.
Then, also in that year, the BNDES suffered a loss in the # 39; court. The bank had written Mandamus to submit to the High Court of Federal Instruments, who queried the TCU's request for information about work signed by JBS / Friboi. According to BNDES, the data was protected by a bank deed.
At a lawyer, Luiz Fux Finance Minister said: "Those who contract with BNDES must accept that the requirement for visibility is to enable information across the community information that can impact on business performance. " Then it was up to BNDES to open the data for TCU.
According to the TCU, the 2015 judgment was given – before BNDES refused the data, and then passed all the information requested.
"It's a public body in BNDES, but it's a bank. We had two good reviews: a problem and a bank revenge – that's the client, not the bank of bank. "said Ricardo Ramos, BNDES's strategic and digital format director." The world's most prominent bank is today.
BBC News Brazil has consulted on other public development bank sites such as the CDB Jean and KfW of Germany and has not found that the amount of data is available on the BNDES website.
The difference between BNDES and Petrobras: fewer political positions
On the other hand, when the phrase "black box" is used, the term may refer to the publication and publication of internal documents (older and recent), as summaries of meetings, reports conferences and financial analysis. In this regard, the BNDES has already been targeting a number of investigations, which did not reveal anomalies.
"BNDES has been subject to checks frequently with the Federal Office of Federal Office of Federal Directorate and was inspected by three CPIs and Operation Bullish from Federal Police." A post office officer was not identified for corruption, "Ricardo Ramos, himself as a vocational worker, was for 26 years at the center.
One of the latest analyzes, carried out by CPI of the BNDES in the Assembly, was presented to the final report this March this year. The document states that the BNDES contributes to strategic projects, recognizing that the base is low and its; recommend further progress in creating ways to determine the financial efficiency provided.
And finished: "We agree with any measure that aims to eliminate or reduce the funding opportunities with BNDES."
Bankruptcy critics are often comparable to Petrobras, who was a counting $ 6 billion loss with corruption. But there is an important difference between the two centers.
"We do not have a political situation, there are 2,707 people who are inactive, and only 13 councilors have no demand – but they do not make decisions, they do not give advice, "explains Ramos. At Petrobras, the corruption scheme was made through political leaders, such as Renato Duque, Paulo Roberto Costa and Jorge Zelada, according to Operation Lava Jato surveys.
"BNDES's professional structure was almost no pollute, one of the best in the public sector. The mistake was restricted to very interesting strategies." Resources economist Maílson da Nobrega wrote in last Friday magazine.
Nóbrega is not a supporter of the PT, on the other hand. He was a finance minister in the government of Jose Sarney, the economist is a famous religion of the Rousseff government. Regarding Petrobras, it has already been said that the company had "systematically attacked" and defended privation to avoid the political use of state companies: "it is impossible to be heavy in the country where 35,000 public administration jobs can be donated by political signature ".
"BNDES has no black box, which has been a lack of communication because we have not published specific items before, but today we are very clear and we are willing to do more. , yes, "ending Ramos.
Is it fair to support overseas projects when there is so much in Brazil?
The biggest works that have been criticized by BNDES are just those who have a pity in the & # 39; WhatsApp during the election period: loans to other countries to negotiate Brazil's construction companies, largely in Latin America and Africa.
"Through BNDES, Brazil is one of the largest social security entities that bring millions of the world. Leinn, is the focus of Brazil," said Bolsonaro on Twitter during the campaign.
In November last year, BBC News Brazil set out one of the internationally funded BNDES projects, National International Airport in northern Mozambique, run by Odebrecht. Three years after the first time, there was a & # 39; Most of the infrastructure is still in use.
The Mozambican government was loaned by the BNDES to pay Odebrecht – at an interest rate of around 4% per annum and a 15-year term payable. However, without moving, the airport did not enter revenue. So, the country stops paying the funding. This is a & # 39; the first foundation of BNDES abroad.
It is worth remembering that, in 2004, Brazil has welcomed the debt of Mozambique, in the amount of US $ 315 million, just for the approval of new loans with its own BNDES – because there is a special debt. preventing new debt debts.
After Mozambique, Venezuela and Cuba also paid some of the contributions of their commitments to the BNDES. In total, the debt of the three countries with Brazil is US $ 459 million (approximately R $ 1.7 billion).
In its defense, the BNDES says that there are cases like that – most of this type of loan is paid in due course. In addition, the bank says that the diamonds that these three countries are preserved by a type of insurance.
But why are BNDES support projects abroad? The right bank is saying that the aim is to create employment and income in Brazil. "When financing the export of the Brazilian engineering company for overseas jobs, BNDES needs to have all goods and services provided by native Brazil," says the institution.
According to an analysis by LCA Consultoria, every US $ 100 million that was invested by Brazilian construction companies abroad, 19,000 jobs were created or maintained in Brazil.
It is worth noting that this is not an independent Brazilian business. Other countries will make loans like this, such as China.
In addition to that, it was the aim that was; has been helping Brazilian consultants in the & # 39; China's competition for African and Latin American markets that received this type of funding in Brazil, from 2007, during the Lula government.
There was no competitive market interest in the international marketplace. The BNDES offered an interest between 3% and 9%, and a term for payment up to 25 years. It was a way, therefore, to provide unhealthy conditions for Brazilian companies, compared to potential foreign competitors.
From 2016, according to La Jato Lava, this type of funding for the overseas infrastructure was stopped. According to BNDES, the companies were asked to sign a new agreement, and # 39; promises that all money paid by bank will be used in the work. None of them wanted to go together, the bank says.
In addition, there has been no other loan application in this area. That is, today, this type of loan is no longer active. On the other hand, the public data is. However, polemics did not return.
The policy that promotes the & # 39; national terrorism & # 39;
BNDES is another controversial well over the BNDES regulations during the loans of companies to grow bigger companies and internationalization – known as a "national rights" policy. Among them, JBS and Oi operator.
"The Brazilian government had a historical vision to support large companies through the BNDES. Wash the bank's hands, as if it were saying: if this agency is applying for funding and he has the ability to pay, let's go ahead, I will give a loan and I will not respond to government policies, "and Lazzarini's definition, from Insper.
The economist gives an example: "BNDES was not surprised to have the value to lower low level to encourage a large group to go to it. ; Afraga, just because Brazil wanted to compete in Chinese. "
Therefore, the BNDES would be provided for projects that have effects – such as Nacala Airport. "It was evaluating the impact of something that BNDES did not have", a & # 39; ending Lazzarini.
But that has also changed, says the economist. Beginning with the reign of Maria Silvia Bastos in the BNDES leadership, started in 2016, under Michel Temer, the bank became more reflective when it came to a loan.
However, in the meantime, the most important criteria in paying the financial capacity of the loan and generating income and employment in Brazil, from 2016 were Other values into the balance: economic, environmental, social, regional benefits and the buyer who received the loan Post-
Lazzarini makes examples: "safety health jobs in Brazil have given more prominence in BNDES, because it's something that has a lot of social impact, much more than a # 39 ; financing fridgerator or airport. "
There is another change that BNDES has been seeking to increase the funding for "anonymous camps" – microbiots, small and medium-sized companies.
In this way, the creatures that occurred in the BNDES in recent years have not been small. There is a great deal of responsibility in the public, which has criticized and wants more bank exposure.
"There has never been any doubt, in a very short time, in the opinion of public and national leaders, at least worth the country's effort to fund development bank as BNDES with taxes. Now, "wrote Paulo Rabello de Castro – presented Maria Silvia as president of BNDES – in the last year's bank announcement.
However, he emphasized Rabello, this debate must be "as wide and as informative as possible, without an inconvenient repetition of clusters or subsequent facts about bank activities. " So, the recent BNDES promotional campaigns have been "kind of" open accountability "for their central valuation of Brazilians themselves."
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