News Valley – Scientists will build a new Mars Rover



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Los Angeles – In three years, a new explorer will have a link to the # 39; Red Planet. Wheels are excavated, and & # 39; gutting tools, the rover will be breed over the rustic ground, and looking to restore rocks to the Landscapes that could then be tested on Mars.

This is the first time in history that scientists' science had been in a position; A real attack on addressing one of the deepest questions at a & # 39; Humanity: Are we alone?

But first they must decide where to see them.

There are three options: old hot weather NASA has once visited once again, dried a river delta that fed into a crater lake, and a network of old leases. It could be hidden underground water.

In the coming week, after decades of burglary, years of research and a three-day rescue debate at a workshop in Los Angeles last year, NASA science science officer chooses the place to be explored. The site that he chooses will set on the platform on which generations of scientists will confirm their privacy.

This rover, which was launched in 2020, is just the first phase of a four-dollar-back sample process. To put parts of Mars into the hands of scientists they need to get the samples again; sought to take them home; and then a truly secure storage facility that sustains the Earth's life from Mars's pollutants – and vice versa.

But fossils can be found in these sperms. illustrate the origins of life here on Earth. It could show if someone else is still out, waiting to be found.

"I want to find out," said Matt Golombek, a NASA scientist who was discharged by searching the search for a tour site. "Do not you? I want to find out what's there. I want to find out how big an accident we have."

The hunger for the experience of hundreds of people has been given to the workshop recently – specialist researchers and doctoral students, a 18-year-old carer and accountability of his / 39 years old 80 years old – to evaluate what plan is there; better. For debated days, encouraged by poor friendship and coffee, he was aware that the outcome of the meeting could influence NASA and its history, well aware of what they were still familiar with .

Much of Mars is still a mystery. Just the same idea about a stranger's life is lower than a growing educational dimension with wild hope.

They are optimistic.

On Earth, there is no microscopic life. Biology started here almost 4 billion years ago, when its planet was still bombed with debris left from the solar system creation. Today, tiny little organisms appear in the hot well of Yellowstone National Park, flying in cloud, and, frost in the Antarctic, which dropped up to a mile below half.

If it could happen here, why not?

More than two dozen satellites and rovers have been visiting Mars, which has not been shown. It is today's wilderness world that we can see today. Stable volcanoes and frozen lava floods show that there is an active inside of the cell. simultaneous planet who was active through tectonic activity. Sheltered, gulls and lagoons have been suggesting that there was ripe water lying at the surface – which could be & # 39; means that there is a deeper atmosphere to keep the water from stealing away.

But then an accident hit. Less than one billion years into history, most of the scientists say that the heart's heart has been weakened; planet stopped on churning. As a result, the collapse of carbon-belching volcanoes and the loss of Mars's magnetism range. Cosmic radiation and vigorous extracts from the sun to remove the atmosphere of the planet, cause any water to clear the surface. Welcome, ocean; long lochs; welcome moisturized and volcanic freshwater – all kinds of places that I prefer to live.

Now Mars is seen as a "dissatisfied planet", a very different turning of the world in which we live.

"The Land where the Earth's environments have gone away," said Bethany Ehlmann, a planning scientist at Caltech, at his workshop. "So the question is, why? And when?" And, most interesting of them all, "Was life chances to get on before?"

These questions can only be answered by dragging Mars rocks back to Earth, according to their. Most scientists. A person in high-level work was able to analyze the atom of the atom, showing small structures that were not; he can see a robot.

It would be even historical to find even some frosty molecules that leave microbial. Identify the knowledge that biology would rise on two nearby plans that suggest that there is a common life throughout its; globe. The environment where the Martians are discovered – whether it's a heat spring, a river delta or a ground fire – which reflects the origin of the life of Earth.

And with the knowledge that the world of the world could be and then be able to; Failure, it would affect the unfortunate luck. Probably the conditions for keeping it & # 39; from sources are always sure.

"We need these samples, and they have to be the right ones," said Golombek.

In the back of the dance dancing, one researcher turned to the person next to her and smile: "Are you ready for the show?"

One option for the purpose is a range of hot springs resembled a Yellowstone that was explored by the Spirit rover between 2004 and 2010. Here, beside the rocky stones known as Home Plate, the rover that is now uncomfortable – Structured strange structures, branch-made silica, mineral and water-related minerals. But the rover was not equipped with instruments capable of detecting organic blends, so the secret of these structures was saved.

Seven years later, the spirit industry Steve Ruff's spirit industry apparently appeared through the volcanic magazine: Scientists had found another field of geology in the Andes that were in structures just like those on Mars. At the site, called El Tatio, heat micro-organisms will make silica displays in filaments, mats and spiers.

"This is Mars's favorite place of ever any situation," said Ruff.

But repossiping on a site may mean that there is less to learn, many scientists are concerned. And what is Ruff wrong about the silica structures?

Ruff's only answer: "What are we right?"

"If one of the drivers that Mars investigates to answer this question, & # 39; Are we alone? & # 39; And we found a place I will deal with that problem and we are turning away from here because we're not sure we're finding it, I just think that – "He stopped, a & # 39; find a term that would not harm anyone's colleagues. "Reception," he said last. "And that's just anything of NASA."

This site was explored near Mars belts between 2004 and 2010 by the Spirit rover.

If there is any turning of rover 50 million miles through the space called "conservative," you can land ashore in Jezero Crater. The habitats of ancient fossils found on Earth are closely related to the types of delta, where large quantities of sediments from large collections are preserved.

"Juicy rocks tell us the history of what has happened at a site," said Tim Goudge, a geologist at the University of Texas in Austin. "It's recorded in the lines, and you can read them as a book."

Minerals are also in Jezero that are associated with Earth life, such as carbonate, as well as clay known as smectites that are known to use organic material.

But the site is gutted by a sandy hill – a risk that may be fatal for a rover.

"They scare the bejeezus out of me," said Ray Arvidson, a scientist at the Washington University in St. Louis. On Mars mission, there is no revival.

Ehlmann, a Caltech scientist, has spent years looking at maps of the tables at Syrtis in the North East. Martian is a unique environment, which could be the home of an unusual life in Martian.

"This would be an opportunity to become a geologist there," she said. "I want to look at the rocks, for their understanding, to tell the story they tell."

The site will appeal to many scientists due to the diversity of ancient rocks; there. Rubbish from the old metal effects, called "mega breccias", some of the oldest rocks that were sampled from any planet in the solar system. Thousands of a year-old rock could show how Mars became a world today.

There are also minerals in the area, such as carbonates, which suggest that it would be once underground water – one opening for organisms that can be used; seek protection from bad weather and ban on planet.

But if life is uneven too low, even the best performing machines on Earth could not be found. Scientists are more likely to find life in sedimentary rocks such as those at Jezero.

Then, Emily Lakdawalla, geologist and senior editor for his Planetary Company, Give a question that looked after each site on which it is & # 39; considered.

"What if the samples do not come back?" She said. "Can we think about that?"

There was a time when people thought about it; ability. NASA has not yet awarded funding to one of the three remaining ongoing campaigns for a sample back.

Golombek took the microphone.

"We have decided to make a rule for this conversation," he said. "It's up to each other if you're hopeful or embarrassing, right?"

For a moment, he persuaded his colleagues, to be very hopeful.

In the last morning of the workshop, there was no consensus on the best place to take the rover. Some scientists said that their minds were changing with each show, and their ideas showed how they heard strong evidence from the supporters of each site. Others had become more interesting in their jobs.

But what things if they did not have to choose?

The mission team's mission mission was to promote a vibrant, new-based mission on the North East Syrtis edge known as "Midway," is not far from Jezero Crater's side.

He would give hundreds of Martian days – which were equivalent to several years on Earth – but the rover could be able to make the way from one site to the island, and get the best samples from both. The blacksmith would go over a steep hill ridge, full rock fields and windy windy ground.

"This is an amazing research," said Ken Williford, a pro-science scientist for the purpose.

Even with March's rates, Midway was split by unidentified. It was not possible for scientists to make detailed analyzes of the existing rocks, and the proposed 15 miles were; going on at the edge of what would do with rover lumbering.

There were many ways that this could be very difficult, some of them worrying.

"But," Ken Farley, a project scientist, said "there's more than one way to fail."

"Personally," continued, "I do not want to be inaccurate because we have not been sufficiently optimized to make the sample correctly scientifically."

His vote was kept in silence; There was almost no complaint because the results were shown on the umbrella of the ballroom rooms. The Columbia Hills had low screens. But Jezero, Southeast Syrtis and Midway were gloomy and neck and neck.

At the end, the decision came down to Thomas Zurbuchen.

As NASA's associated administrator for science, he monitors more than 100 campaigns aimed at understanding the solar system and beyond. But about all these efforts, he said, it's Mars 2020 where a & # 39; Most of NASA's lost – and most people have a humanity to lose; benefit.

"This is the biggest threat," he said about the $ 2 billion mission. "But as all things are just as we hoped … The tour site I'm doing is officially designed to make history."

Days before he was expecting to find out about his final leaflet about the landing options, Zurbuchen had not yet been decided. It had part of the site's siting site, but there was much to consider: engineer safety evaluations, the ability for ongoing initiatives, the need to balance astrobiology research with other scientific issues.

And then the vision that filled his mind when he closed his eyes to a dream – an idea that was neither financial nor scientific, but a purely hope. Inventory of the Mars spindles carried out; injured back to Earth. Scientists who accept the disks and their ears; get their first appearance on other plank pieces. The work where the rocks will be explored, the complex instruments that search for signs of old organisms.

And a science room where his grandchildren are in the future, reading a textbook in which he has chosen his place name – a place where he learned humanity, for his & # 39 ; the first time, we were not always alone.

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