A MIT-led research team has developed a drug capsule that can be used to deliver an oral dose of insulin, which can replace the tools- robots that require people with diabetes type 2 to give themselves every day.
In terms of herb-size, small threaded rods are made with coated concentrated insulin, which is damaged after the capsule is reached in the stomach. In experiments in animals, researchers found that they could provide enough insulin to lower low blood sugar to comparative levels than those made with fragments taken through skin. They also showed that the device can be modified to deliver other protein drugs.
"We are very optimistic that this new type of capsule could help diabetic patients and, possibly, anyone who needs remedies now & # 39; only enter into injection or return, "said Robert Langer, Professor David H. Koch, member of the MIT Koch Institute for the Equality of Lochalsh Research, and one of the oldest authors in the study .
Giovanni Traverso, professor of Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and a visiting scientist in the MIT Medical Department, where he is a religious member in 2019, is also a senior author of the study. The first author is & # 39; paper, which appears in a magazine; February 8 of Science, is a graduate student MIT, Alex Abramson. The research team also includes scientists from the Novo Nordisk medicine company.
Over a number of years, Traverso, Langer, and the pill co-workers have been covered with many small tooths that could be used to throw drugs into the stomach or disease little. For the new capsule, the researchers changed the design that they had only one needle, and let them go; Bring out drugs inside the stomach, where they would be screened by a stomach acute before they would have any effect.
The top of the needle is made of almost 100% of insulin that is dried, dried, and # 39; Using the same process that is being used to create a medicine tablet. The caste of the needle, which does not enter the stomach wall, is made from other material that can be included.
Within the caps, the needle is connected to a cooled spring that is kept in a place with a demo of sugar. When the capsule is swallowed, the stomach water will disperse the sugar diskette, and drop off the spring and put the needle into the stomach wall.
Painting appliances do not have a stomach wall, so the researchers have a & # 39; Believing patients would not be able to notice the injection. To ensure that the drug is inserted into the stomach wall, the researchers have designed their system so that it does not matter how the capsule is running in a & # 39; stomach, it can guide itself so the needle is connected to filling up the stomach.
"As soon as you can, you want the system to have a self-correct so that you can make sure you contact the tools," said Traverso.
The researchers pulled the motivation for a genuine feature of abduction known as the leopard's tower. There are high-dredged shells, which are found in Africa with a high ridge, turn, and make an opportunity to do it if it goes on its back. The researchers used computing modules to make changes to this shape for the capsule, which allows them to re-convert themselves even into the vibrant environment of the stomach.
"It's an important thing that the needle is in contact with the knitting machine when it is damaged," said Abramson. "Also, if people were moving around or that the stomach was growing, the device would not move the best way."
Once a tip of a thread is inserted into the stomach wall, the insulin will be demolished at a level that can be contaminated by the researchers long and long; s when the capsule is prepared. In this study, it took about an hour for all insulin to be discharged in the bloodstream.
Easier for patients
In pigs tests, researchers showed that they could deliver up to 300 micrograms of insulin. More recently, they have been able to increase the dose to 5 milligrams, which is similar to the level of a patient with a type 2 diabetes discharged.
After a ridge to be & # 39; Stopping out, it can move uncertainly through the excavation system. The researchers found no adverse effects on the capsule, which is made from the production of bi-crack polymer and steel components without a machine.
The MIT team now continues to work with Novo Nordisk to further develop the technology and the best manufacturing method for improving the capsules. They believe that this type of drug may be useful for any protein that may most commonly be damaged, as immunosuppressants would have a fluid sound of arthritis no chronic disease disease. It may also work for natural acids such as DNA and RNA.
"Our reason is for patients to take drugs, especially medications that require injection," says Traverso. "The classic girl is insulin, but there are many others."
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