Ocean Shock: Blue-haired Factories to Africa Decline



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This is part of the "Ocean Shock," Reuters series exploring the impact of climate change on marine creatures and the people that depend on them.

Greyhound Bay was once a place where old boats came to death. A series of wild coastline on the western edge of Sahara, its student made a useful place, if it is obvious, to trap a trawler, a special gauge or tug. There were so many vessels to their graves here, the Nouadhibou port was nearby and always looked at the army of a ghost; watch the brooks.

Today, walkers do not have a course design for their & # 39; This gateway to the West African country of Mauritia trying to abandon. All Turkish fishing boats are at anchor, and the laundry flows out to dry over the deck. In open sea, the dense woodlands of Chinese vessels place V-shaped watchwords with the foxes.

Chinese fishing boats are tied near the Nouadhibou coast, Mauritania, April 14, 2018.

Chinese fishing boats are tied near the Nouadhibou coast, Mauritania, April 14, 2018.

Closer shingles, turn-turning turns-octopus-catchers scan the surface through the heads of eyebrows that once were scattered from sandstorms.

But the activity is worth all of those behind behind high walls. It would be quite easy to lose – just the only thing to do to & # 39; turning her stomach.

On Saturday that was recently held, Hamoud El-Mami's factory manager watched over a warehouse gate in Africa, SA Protest, when two of its works were glamorous in deep sardinella, similar fish with a sardine that will Successful with a current Canal Factory from northwest Africa.

Disturbing her & # 39; smell, rubber workers put the fish into a positive appearance. Due to a large circular screw, the machine sent each sardinella to a connection, and then moved the gray ball as a result of a hole in the wall and into the devastating campaigns; at the factory.

Pregnant Africa's gadgets produce full-of-the-packed fish-powered pools; The whiskey business carries $ 160 billion. One of the fastest growing fastest growing food sectors in the world is a water farm; Bringing wildcatching quickly as the largest source of fish for human consumption.

From shrimp ponds from the eyes of the Chinese river to the Viking salmon cages, the business will thrive by fishing fish to other fish. Their needs are so foolish, around 20% of the world's fish will not even go to; go near a man's plock, instead instead grow up to make fish mines.

Fish is displayed for sale at the fish market in Joal-Fadiouth, Senegal, April 10, 2018.

Fish is displayed for sale at the fish market in Joal-Fadiouth, Senegal, April 10, 2018.

Unexpectedly urged China to push herbal herb prices to record elevations, companies have put their sights on West Africa as a new supply resource. From indigenous entrepreneurs from indigenous entrepreneurs, Chinese researchers build new factories on the shores of Mauritania and its two neighbors to the south, Senegal and Gambia.

But in the stream for sardinella, global business interests are capturing Western Africa's diet from the people; need most. And the blade levers of the gadgets cause a new risk to the species at a time when sardinella is at a time; swim for her life already.

"In four or five years, no fish stocks will remain, closing the factories, and the foreigners will leave," said Abdou Karim Sall, president of a small fishermen's company in Senegal. ; distinguished by his French division, Papas. "There will be left here without any fish."

Diversity data shows that the waters where northern Senegal is located; grow faster than any other part of the zinc belt called a tropical complex zone, formerly known to sailors just like the "doldrums". The adverse effects on the climate change are hidden from this view: a new study by researchers at the IRD-France-based institute based in Marseille shows that the rising temperature of sardinella is pushed at an average of 200 miles north of 1995.

The results, which were shared by Reuters, were sent to & # 39; The first clear evidence that Western Afghan sardinella is involved in diaspora across the world of marine creatures; flee from mud or deeper when warm waters. The maximum extent of this migration influences anything that is & # 39; happening on the land: fish moving 10 times is longer than the average of rural animals likely to increase temperatures, according to Professor Camille Parmesan, authorizing the effects of climax on marine life at Plymouth University.

Not only does climate change change sardinella from their traditional habitat, it's a? stressing the fish in a different way, indirectly, by increasing the incentives for additional West African fish plants.

Peru is the largest exports in the world of fish food, which has been made from large rocks of stones. So, the country affects the cost of fish mining compared to Saudi Arabia as a raw producer of raw oil. From the beginning of the 1970s, El Niño's climate philosophy has occasionally been caused by a number of invasion of Peru's conduct of aggression by disturbing the machine that has been disturbed. feed these fish with nutrition. In the last ten years, climate change seems to have been increasing the frequency and effects of El Niño, which can significantly find the prices of fish grazing.

Fishermen who take their boat at the beach near the town of Joal-Fadiouth, Senegal, April 10, 2018.

Fishermen who take their boat at the beach near the town of Joal-Fadiouth, Senegal, April 10, 2018.

This inequality can grow well for West African fish makers, who stand to make more money each time at prices. But overproduction may directly affect millions of people in the area, by placing the risk of the fish that they are responsible for; Main source of income, income and protein.

Demand for fish has already caused the annual capture of Mauritania de sardinella to rise from 440,000 tonnes to 770,000 tonnes within a few years, according to a report funded by the European Union published in 2015. Senegalese boats grew up to the 10 year-old landscaping of the plants between 2008 and 2012, finding the report. Current Canary fish stocks, scientists say, can not resist this weight for much longer.

Coastal communities in West Africa are already among the most vulnerable in terms of the effects of climate change.

The increase has been accelerating coastal towns as a whole, and the weather is harder than its; fishing is always more dangerous. Tickets and irregular rainwater have allowed farmers to leave their land and go to the shoreline, and indicate the numbers of people who are in the water. is becoming increasingly bigger than the best hope of baiting their families over the break.

But despite a landfall in the Nouadhibou where staff waiting for the next fish are poor, factory leaders will be able to do so; gutting their shoulders when they talk about sardinella blister rods that will be used; ever run.

"Fish is still plentiful," El-Mami said, moving to the nearby beach with a smile. "If you pick up your fishing rod right now, you'll find beautiful fish."

Changing fortune

Painted eyes look from the prodigles of the pinnacles that appear; climbing in the hole at Joal-Fadiouth, a remote center of Senegal fishing industry. Including the names of the spiritual leaders who are. affecting all Senegal society, some also show a more global ambition: the strong logo of the Manchester City football club or the words "Barack Obama."

Gold debate has doubled the size of the small fishing boats in the country over the last decade. He is willing to win votes, the government has supported the motors outside a board to allow fishermen to go further. Now 600,000 people are employing directly or indirectly, or 17 per cent of the staff, continues to threaten the protection of its storage.

Doudou Kote, skipper of a Senegal fishing boat, stands on the beach at Joal-Fadiouth, the country's leading fishing industry, April 10, 2018.

Doudou Kote, skipper of a Senegal fishing boat, stands on the beach at Joal-Fadiouth, the country's leading fishing industry, April 10, 2018.

On Tuesday, the captain Doudou Kotè removed his & # 39; his boat and on a horse-drawn cart clearly at home in the waves. As a result of affecting the climb in a & # 39; This map, Kotè said what many of the fishermen say: Sardinella, a talismanic species in Senegal, is in the middle of an action that is missing.

"Today, there are more pirogues: People who have no pinnacles now now, and now have two of them now," said Kotè, who was a scarce mariner, Graveling of green wading birds and crab shrimp. "We often come home without taking anything – there is not enough to buy or even eat fuel."

An exciting man with two women and six children; , when Kotè's expression was found in its obscurity while & # 39; as he expected sardinella to be stressed; Bringing a short time on fish stocks falls. "If I had any other work to do, I would have to fish," he said.

Not just Senegalà who has a & # 39; miss out because the accuracy is converted to fish mines. In Mauritania, the industry has been agitating at least 330,000 tonnes of fish each year previously sold in the West African markets such as Ghana, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. & # 39; estimate. That's almost the total annual fish consumption of Senegal's population of 15 million.

Although Senegal does not produce just a few of the number of fish sold by almost 30 factories from Mauritania, her twelve plants could be an unsuitable danger by blocking a dynamic market engine that was then limited to what fishermen would have; taken.

In the past, in the seasons when Sardinella left closer to land, Kotè and her countries could add more to how the local market could catch. The teams would release the fish that did not; They can sell them to go to the sand, and then go to the sand; stay home to get them out. With the factories that are now willing to buy all the latest fish, there is nothing to stop the fishing boats from pushing stock to date.

"We could be involved in a devastating situation," said Patrice Brehmer, a marine scientist at IRD-France, who wrote the study telling that cooling waters are pushing sardinella to North.

A worker who draws a trolley full of fishpots is made by the company Omaurci SA in Nouadhibou, Mauritania, April 14, 2018.

A worker who draws a trolley full of fishpots is made by the company Omaurci SA in Nouadhibou, Mauritania, April 14, 2018.

The growing disparity between people and nature in the Canary Current. Fishermen are think they need to be back to the poverty of ancestral settlements.

When Ibrahima Samba writes a living to grow peunuts and honey on his family outside the Mbour Senegalese town. When the waters started too early or too late, he went into other farmers who swim the nets for their nets.

"We can change the climate: things have never been working out how we hoped, and there was astonishment," said Samba.

"With the sea, you're going out today, you're fishing today, and you're selling off – and you do not have to be a professional professionals to do. We saw the car at cars and we were building houses. "

After 22 years as a fisherman, Samba says that climate change is again threatening his animation, this time by going to her; running sardinella. "There is no climate change that affects the agriculture sector, but also fished," he said. "People may have problems selling the ground, because there is a great chance of getting back to farm."

The effects of blue fish factories are already prominent in the face of a local woman. It was not long ago from the beach at Joal-Fadiouth, cautious pillars of fog were moved from folded outer ovens with simple sardinella lines; dry slowly over a high hill. Many of them were going to go. had to be worn and served on a bed of spicy rice in the national diet of Senegal, known as Thiéboudiène.

When there were times good, thousands of staff could have a " Outdoor Fish Driving Facility – Almost all women – make more money than the married fishermen, and save enough to buy new engines, or even boats.

Among them was Rokeya Diop, a matriarchal figure of good standing among the community that prepares, and Smoking and salt salting for sale in local markets. These days, the hungry pale that hung over the desert met his mind.

As the smoke saw, firemen still gave them straw into the empty ovens and, Using long poles to take the ash that carried several hours. But the fish factories are willing to pay twice as much as Diop and his friends can for new sardinella, leaving nothing but their hands.

"I'll stay up to 10 tonight every night at night but I'm going home empty," said Dip, pulling her pieces together.

Aerial view of fish production plants in Nouadhibou, Mauritania, April 14, 2018.

Aerial view of fish production plants in Nouadhibou, Mauritania, April 14, 2018.

Although demand from factories is just one of many reasons that affect the fish that is in a position that is a problem. Getting from season to season in Senegal, the gutting is higher than the shoreline of the huge changes that make it happen; happening at sea.

"We can not behave everything on the factories," said Maimouna Diokh, treasurer of local council who, management of a fishing activity in Joal-Fadiouth, as the men who dragged stones of sharp fish into trucks parked in a lofty bay on the beach. "Climate change is a" warming up of the waters, and so there is less fish. "

Sea to heat

Years of sun and salt have been enforcing for a & # 39; Bringing a curly, catamaran anchored in the Nouadhibou harbor, a special weather-bearing. But the two-engine ship is still a great help to bring science teams into Greyhound Bay to gather information on the cooling seas.

One Saturday, the Amrigue placed an acre near sand called Gazelle Bank, about two miles from the harbor.

Abdoul Dia, head of the laboratory at the Mauritanian of Oceanographic Research and Fisheries Institute, no Imrop, used a device to collect sediment from the seabed where the splash vessel was made.

Continue to a sample on its & # 39; he put down the gravel into a plastic tank and started scrapping it with a sieve and a pipe. He was looking for microbirals that could help his colleagues build a more detailed picture of how the conditions change.

Artisanal fishing boats attached to the Nouadhibou harbor, the main port in Mauritania, April 14, 2018.

Artisanal fishing boats attached to the Nouadhibou harbor, the main port in Mauritania, April 14, 2018.

The big picture is already clear: there are thirty years of measurements that show that the balmy waters where Mauritania are in existence are clear. grow warmer. "If you look, you will see an increase in average temperature that reinforces the warming guide," said God, spread an orange life jacket over his white geek coat.

At Imrop's headquarters, on a bluff that overlooks it. bay, God explained why this warmth was so important. Nouadhibou is located near a common zone where the coolest waters of the north are affected by tropical waters south. The extreme severe backdrop of this diameter slightly oscillates every year. But how waters have warmed up, it has begun to grow far further north, even to # 39; stretching as far as the Moroccan town of Casablanca, 870 miles away. The sardinella stock friction center has moved north as the species has been trying to maintain the best temperature.

The shift is good news for Mauritania's mining factories, because the sardinella is now closer. But it's a bad news for fishermen to the south in Senegal and in the USA; Ghambia, which has live fishing stocks that move further.

Some researchers believe, over time, that the warming movement may increase the amount of fish in the Canary Current as new species have; supported in changing situations. But others are seeing a more expensive future.

Vicky Lam, an economist fisherman at the Institute for Oceans and Fishing at the British Columbia University in Canada, and three researchers published in 2012 investigated the potential impact of Climate change in fishing in 14 West African countries, including Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia. Their projections for 2050 were tough: 21 per cent decreased in the annual capture value, 50% reduction in jobs related to fishing and annual loss of $ 311 million to the regional economy.

The fish industry does not add to the weight. Ad Corten, who is chaired by a sardinella committee, is a stock evaluation group that advises the U.N Food and Agriculture Group, saying that fishing vessels were availed. Take too much from Chanary Today even before the factories came.

"This is going to be deleted within one or two," said Corten to Reuters. "We are already aware of the shortage of sardinella in Mauritanian waters. We will hear the same stories from Senegal."

Fishermen are feeling that the character of the sea changes. Last year, the coldest weather out of Nouadhibou in 20 years gave sardinella and octopus gorts. Stones moving through the holes were near six weeks later. The wild wind that will run will decline. Sea is usually blown between March and June. In Morocco, the fall of Zagora's wilderness fell in the first half of fifty years.

Aerial view of fishing boats connected in Nouadhibou, Mauritania, April 15, 2018.

Aerial view of fishing boats connected in Nouadhibou, Mauritania, April 15, 2018.

"Last year, the harbor was very distressed," said Abdel Aziz Boughourbal, manager of Omaurci SA, one of the largest Mauritanian fish companies and fish fish, an e-dish in a restaurant where there are sailors who are there; Visit to cracking cans into the mountain. He said that the Chilein team had been surprised at one of his ships recently when running his boat into a huge shooting of the ship; Wikiquote – Peru usually found.

Rush of Chinese museums

Some Chinese researchers seem to share the fear of the fisherman. Over the last few years, key fisheries companies have invested debt worth hundreds of thousands of dollars to establish fish processing and fish plants around Nouadhibou, their huge bigger campaigns above her & # 39; sand. There is even a smaller Chinese player with a port for expansion.

"If we have the opportunity, we will do other projects – from more fish to work and frost," said Fan Yongzhen, a giant manager at Continental Seafood, one of the seabed factories in Nouadhibou.

In the capital city, Nouakchott, Road China and Bridge Corp., which have built large collections of projects across Africa, have submitted proposals to develop a 40-square maritime business park south of a & # 39; town. According to the company's feasibility study, viewed by Reuters, plant to process, frost and & # 39; Bringing out fish – and, indeed, fish fish.

Everyone from Chinese businessmen to Senegealse funding farmers who are looking at Canary Current to do their fortune, the games have begun to go to; climbing.

In January, the Senegalese Saint-Louis porters had been killed by fishermen after one of their co-workers was killed by the Mauritanian coast soldiers. A defense defense officer told Reuters that the man was seriously killed when a fire officer opened to try to convince the engine of Senegealse's pirogue to be convicted of being killed. shearing the Mauritanian patrol work.

Sardinella moves over a 1,000 mile zone divided by Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia. Officials from each country say they want to keep their fish steadily and improve the type of processing, frozen and export activity that can create thousands of jobs. But with an effective divisional management system still exists, this objective may not be consistent with the installation of devices that are in place; eroded more for the benefit of fish farms that bring food to Asia, Europe and North America.

Bamba Banja, a permanent secretary to the Gambia fishing minister, said the government was a priority to ensure that local people had enough fish to eat. "If it comes to the fish, we would like to block the fish factories and allow normal Gambitness – women and vulnerable people – have access to these resources," he said.

Despite government commitments, the town of Gambia in Gunjur has emerged as a symbol of its " conflicts that may take fish away.

In 2016, a Chinese center opened a planning center called "Lead Lead". Although many in Gunjur are grateful to work as a wedding party for the factory, one of three who grows up on a 50 mile coastline, others fear that & # 39; company for fish fish that can endanger the long-term survival of the community.

In March, a number of people gathered on the beach and excavated factory material; pipe pouring into the sea. Local entrepreneurs declare that Gold Leadership is about to nearby lock hunting, a breeding area and a nutrition area for migratory aquacles where crocodiles come to a satellite lounge-room in the middle of the middle heat. After that they showed Reuters's pictures of dead fish and a sparkling red shadow that scattered the water.

The men carry fishing ropes outside the Golden Lead property fish factory gates in the Gunjur fishing village, Gambia, April 17 2018.

The men carry fishing ropes outside the Golden Lead property fish factory gates in the Gunjur fishing village, Gambia, April 17 2018.

Gold Shape was then ordered by the Gambia environmental organization to expand its 350 pound waste pipe into the sea, according to official document published by Reuters. A few weeks after excavating the young people, staff came to make the necessary expansion. The factory managers identified the event by placing a Chinese banner on the beach.

Gold Leadership says that he respects the rules of Gambia and has been in attendance; Benefits the town in many ways, including to & # 39; Delivering work for dozens of staff, developing a school and doing it; giving sheep to grandfathers at Ramadan.

"We are a businessman," said a member of staff, who refused to be named. "If we do not, someone comes."

Lamin Jassey, an English teacher, played a key role in the campaigns against Golden Lead. He is among a small group of activists arrested from the destruction of crime, crime and the "compelling and difficult" of his company. He had to post a $ 8,400 trust – almost 20 times the annual annual income in Gambia.

"Today, Gunjur is growing enormously – we have a lot of fishermen. Thousands of people come from Senegal," he said, looking at the porters of a & # 39; go into the water to go away to the factory door. "But if stock of fish is under pressure, and at the end it's very scarce, what do you think about the future?"

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