Oxygen may have been available live as early as 3.5 billion years ago


Microbes may have been playing a photoynthesis that created oxygen at least one billion years earlier in the Earth's past than previously expected.

The product could change ideas on how and when a complex life came on Earth, and the likelihood that it could grow on other planets.

Oxygen in Earth's atmosphere is essential for complex life formats, which is used when breathing into breathing to make energy.

Oxygen levels have risen significantly in the atmosphere about 2.4 billion years ago, but why it happened it was debated. Some scientists believe this has been 2.4 billion years ago when cyanobacteria were first introduced by organisms, which would cause oxygen (ocsactic) co-ordination.

Other science sciences have suspected cyanobacteria for a long period of 2.4 billion years ago, but something has prevented oxygen barriers from a " gather in the air.

Cyanobacteria performs a cumulative shape of the appearance of oxygenic co-ordination – the same photosynthesis that every plant publishes; do today. Therefore it is recommended that earlier forms of oxygen resistance should be pre-existed, before cyanobacteria began, resulting in low levels of oxygen available.

Now, a research team led by Imperial College London has discovered that oxygen photoynthesis has risen at least one billion years before cyanobacteria began. Their findings, published in the Geobiology magazine, show that oxygenic appearance may have grown rapidly in the Earth's 4.5-billion year history.

Dr Tanai Cardona, from the Department of Life Sciences in the Empire, said: "We know cyanobacteria are very old, but we do not know how old. If cyanobacteria are, for example, 2.5 billion years age that would mean oxygenic photoynthesis may begin as early as 3.5 billion years ago. It is recommended that it does not bring billions of years for a process such as photosynthesis oxygenic after origins. "

If oxygenic adjustment has grown early, it can be & # 39; It means that a simple and simple process is to grow better. It may appear that its complex life is a complex; appear in an exoplanet far away.

Scientists are hard to find out when the first oxygen agents have grown to use the rock table on Earth. The older are the rocks, the most rarer, and the harder it is; Verify that fossilcrosts found in these ancient rocks are used or used; make as many oxygen.

Instead, the team investigated the development of two of the main protocols involved in oxygenic photosynthesis.

In the first phase of photoynthesis, cyanobacteria are a; Use energy to light divide water into protons, electrons and oxygen with the help of profitable folds called Photosystem II.

Photosystem II consists of two prints known as D1 and D2. Initially, the two protons were similar, but although they have very similar structures, their genetic varieties are now different.

This shows that D1 and D2 have been varied separately – in cyanobacteria and plants that are not; Only 30 per cent share their genetic order. Even in their original form, D1 and D2 would have been able to make oxygenic imaging, so know how long ago & # 39; and that they were similar when appearing first.

To find out the difference between D1 and D2 was 100 percent equal, with only 30 per cent the same in cyanobacteria and plants, the team decided as soon as The proteinins change – their level of progress.

By using powerful statistical methods and recognized events in image-image development, Confirmation that prototypes D1 and D2 in Photosystem II have become slow – even slower than some of the oldest prototypes in the biology that are believed to be found in the earliest animals of life S South

From this, they counted that the time between the D1 and D2 proteins equals the similar 30% variations in cyanobacteria and plants at least a billion years, and may be more than that.

Dr Cardona said: "Probably oxygenic and cyanobacteria seem like the same. So, find out when oxygen was made for the first time , researchers have tried to find out when cyanobacteria started first.

"Our study instead suggests that an oxygenic cyclical cyberobacteria may begin a long start before the ancestral cyanobacteria genealogy originates. This is in agreement with current geological data ; Note that oxygen lumps or local oxygen shapes have been identified before three billion years ago.

"Therefore, the oxygenic sound source of the original and cyanobacteria ancestor does not represent the same. It may be a major gap between man and another. It is a major change in scenery. "

Now, the team attempts to reconfigure what the planning system was like before. D1 and D2 grew first. Using the distinctive variation in genetic codes of a variety of images across all living species today, Trying to bring together a genetic code on ancestral grounds.

Research paper

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Urbana IL (SPX) November 20, 2018

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Nigel Goldenfeld, Swanlund Endowed Chair of … Read more

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