There is a new study that a group of Neanderthals in south-east France have all come out fighting for being depressing. If that says anything about Neanderts, it seems that they weren't so different from us – for better and worse.
Bones in the cave
There was an alarm in Moula-Guercy's cave in south-east France about 120,000 years ago. Archaeologists digging the site in the early 1990s discovered the bones of six Nderthals close to the east wall of the cave, dug by, and harvested by deer and other wildlife. It is strange that he bones the bones, as the dead Naederts were left with the remnants of their food; there is much evidence that Neanderthals had buried the dead. But at Moula-Guercy, at least six Nettles – two adults, two teenagers, and two children – were treated differently. The bones and those that deer identify show equal marks in cutting, scraping, and tapping, usually the type of damage associated with butchery.
“When human remains are found on an unexpected living floor, with patterns similar to damage, animal remains, stone tools, and fires, they can be legitimately interpreted as evidence of a cannabis,” wrote Scotland paper Defleur and Emmanuel. Recent paper desclaux In A Journal of Archaeological Science.
Bones from ankles, eggs, and the legs of the dead show signs that they are breaking and cutting to cut with large pavilion for rusting, and there are signs of stone tools used to force the muscles. as well as stone hammers like turf on the cows. and openings used to open the bone to get to the inner bone. And the man who did the work was detail about it. On one skull, Defleur identified “the successful signatures of the only stone tool, showing the return of temporalis muscle. “That's the wide circle, a shapeboard on the side of your head, used in chewing. And at the least, Neanderthals had at least one of the trophies suggesting that the language was cut out. There are two signs of potato (small bones) which look much more like Nderthal's teeth than any carnivore.
For the last twenty years, archaeologists have discussed what it means. A small number of further sites across Europe have evidence of possible evolution, although not quite as clear as the view of Moula-Guercy. We know very little about the life of Edward, and so it will be easy to surprise if the dead was a part (or eaten) of a dead as part of a funeral ceremony; there is a basis for that in a number of human cultures, from there. But we have evidence on careful and responsible funerals with at least 17 sites in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; cannabal proposals are much more rare and it is unlikely that Moula-Guercy's bones would have been wiped out of any kind after the truth.
Instead, a new study of the environment in south-east France is currently celebrating that the work of an insider struggling to survive the marked signals of the bones. Or, as the archaeologist T.D. White in the 2003 paper, “People usually eat because they are hungry, so most pre-historic canals may have been hungry. ”
For tens of thousands of years, Neanderthals had lived in a cold stepp, where there were large mammals such as the reindeer and wool mammals traveling through herds. What we know about Neanderthals so far, based on a chemical study of their bones, suggests that meat is important in a diet, and that they depended on the plants and fish of many hunters and people t .
Although they were very similar in school – as much as we do children Homo sapiens leaving their markings on today's genes – their bodies were built slightly different. Some studies say that Neanderthal needed more calories to keep them on: about 3,500 to 5,000 per day. In this, they had been dependent on a larger, more plentiful game.
But things have changed (this is probably the shortest human history summary we will ever get). Around 130,000 years ago the world began to become warmer; from sea sediment rocks and ice worms, we know that global temperature rose to around 2⁰C higher than today, and the sea level rose by around six to nine meters (19.69 to 29.53 feet). . The Neanderthal landscape had been successful for thousands of years before it became warmer and more drier.
Pollen and insects in sediments, along with the remains of wood from prehistoric hearth, suggest that the previously exposed steppe became a shrub of woodland and grassland. Smaller species of prey are grazed in denser numbers than the larger herds of stores.
Woodlands are a challenging place for people gathering in the modern world, and less of a pilgrimage may not have been enough to support the Neanderthals. Moula-Guercy has a number of muscles that have a narrower pattern of enamel (known as linear enamel hypoplasia) which indicates periods of severe illness or malnutrition. These people had a hard life and they might be approaching hunger with a few times.
In fact, if Defleur and Dasclaux are correct, the downstream items were discovered immediately after apocalyptic for the band they used to use Moula-Guercy as a summer camping site and collapse (based on layers of bones and bone at the site. location). Neanderthal sites that are as early as international times are not as common as the glacial periods before and after, although most Neanderthals may have left the area for more challenging times, t or not live without change – the issue is far from established.
Nossdert's population density was always very small compared to today's groups of modern people. Anyway, one version of the story means that Moula-Guercy's band could be among the people left in the area. The rest are fairly easy to believe, as the tooth marks on these finger bones tell their own story.
Very human accident
This same story was going on throughout our history: The Great Famine in Europe during the fourteenth century, the Starving Time at Jamestown, the Donner Party, which was struck by a 1972 flight in the Andes, and t Algonquian tales of the Wendigo.
Based on the remaining remains, and how many broken pieces of bone that still fit together, Defleur and Dasclaux say that Moula-Guercy groups are celebrating a single event of bad weather, not one. a long-term strategy. The remains of all six men would feed on a group of 15 to 25 people (about how many groups were commoned in a hunter-gatherer) for about two days – perhaps four days with careful rationing. Later layers suggest that Neanderthals were returning to use the campsite in subsequent years, although there is no way it would be the same people coming, or did they know what had happened there.
For modern people, cannibalism is impaired, even if it is the only way to survive, and leave us thinking how the Neanderthals of this site handled their experience. We know, interestingly, that Neanderthals were quite similar; they created art and jewelery, used symbols to communicate their ideas, and buried their dead. So how would they feel about eating the dead to survive? We can only guess.
“The cannibalism which was exposed at Baume Moula-Guercy does not seem to signify the advancement or sub-humanism,” wrote Defleur and Dasclaux. If there is anything, it is quite scary about severe problems in times of crisis.
Journal of Archaeological Science, 2019. DOI: 10.1016 / j.jas.2019.01.002; (About DOIs).