In humble mushrooms, there is enormous potential, which little one does. They are able to help us solve the most serious problems. And at the same time there are many small people.
Under Jim Anderson's feet a monster has lived for a long time. By the time the Persian king was fighting with the ancient Greeks, he was already born. And there are over three blue whales (these are actually about 150 tons – Ed.).
This monster is fascinating, it will usually eat its way through large tracts of woodland. But this is not an animal. This is mushroom called a mycelium which breaks over the ground over a wide area.
Anderson came to Crystal Falls in Michigan for a re-visit to a once again normal section of the forest, while, at the same time, organisms have been discovered by scientists about 30 years ago living – t the mycelium Armillaria gallica, honeycomb varieties.
These mushrooms and toadstools are found almost everywhere – in Asia, North America, Europe, where dead or dead trees are found, helping to reduce and decrease.
Often a mark of their presence – yellow-brown caps on their feet, rising high above the ground to 10 cm.
When Anderson and his colleagues visited Crystal Falls in the late 1980s, they discovered that the Armillaria gallica family is one large organism, which disperses their relatives in leaf cover. fell.
According to the scientists' estimates, it covered a range of 91 acres (1 acre = 0.405 ha), weighing 100 tons, and was at least 1500 years old.
At that time, the biggest organism on the planet was (the existing map of some mushroom is similar to Oregon).
Now, scientists, given new examples, discovered that the Armillaria gallica is still bigger and older than they were; believes it before.
Here are the results from their research: the fungus was four times bigger and 1,000 years older. The total weight (with mycelium) is about 400 tonnes.
However, this is just a surface. The great thing is that great mushrooms could open the way to one of our most powerful enemies – cancer.
Secret of gallica armillaria
It is likely that Canadian researchers found the mystery of the size and age of Armillaria gallica.
That's: these mushrooms have a surprising amount of miracles. That way, they bypass changes that might be harmful to DNA.
As they know, in organisms, as they grow, the cells share, give birth to new cells, a daughter. Over time, DNA in cells can be damaged, causing errors that lead to the genetic code – that is, revisions.
This is thought to be one of the main ways of working out into the body.
It appears that Armillaria gallica from Crystal Falls is the result of conflict with DNA damage.
In the 15 samples that scientists found in different parts of the forest, only 163 letters from 100 million in the genetic code of Armillaria gallica did not change.
Anderson and his colleagues think that the fungus has a tool to protect their DNA from damage, which creates one of the most enduring genes in our nature.
And although it still seems, the remarkable stability of DNA DNA Armillaria gallica gives a different perspective on human health problems.
As you recognize, with some types of cancer listed the body may be removed from control. And Anderson's Armillaria gallica, according to Anderson, can provide the necessary protection for prickly cell multiplication.
By examining how Armillaria has grown to become so steady in DNA, it will help scientists not only understand the instability of cancer cells, but also, t Find out about new ways of treating cancer.
Mushrooms – our owners own the planet?
Mushrooms are one of the most common people in our planet. The total biosphere of these organizations (often very small!) Goes beyond the overall biology of animals. In addition, we are always finding new types of mushrooms.
Of the 3.8 million species of fungi, it is thought that more than 90% are currently unknown by science. Only in 2017, a total of 2189 new species have been found and explained by researchers.
A recent report has revealed that the Royal British Botanic Garden staff in Kew (London) have reported using mushrooms in hundreds of different ways, from making paper t to clean dirty clothes.
There are around 15% of the drugs and biological weapons found in the mushroom.
The most famous penicillin, found in a typical home model survey, is one that often makes our standard bread. Dozens of other antibiotics are now available from fungi.
- Medical motives: is alcohol consistent with antibiotics?
- From phone to penicillin: how did the Scots rise into the twentieth century?
Mushrooms are a resource for drugs migraine and statins that need to treat heart disease.
One of the most recent new protective (new drugs that defend defense) deployments used to deal with multi-functional sclerosis has been developed from a link created by a fungus affecting it. kicking larvae.
Meanwhile, according to some scientists, we can see only the iceberg: fungi can offer us much more – including treating viral diseases like flu, polio. T measles, measles, measles.
Many species have already been found in fungi, and have the potential to help fight infectious diseases such as HIV and Zika. And this, as scientists believe, is just time.
Not just for health
Fungi found in the soil at a website near Islamabad (Pakistan) seem to have been solved by the problem of increasing environmental pollution by plastic waste, in particular, collecting in the oceans. .
Faria Hassan, an expert in Islamabad, discovered that Aspergillus tubingensis is able to damage the polurethane very quickly.
This type of plastic, which can be used in a range of fields, from furniture furnishings to green tapes and films, can pollute soil and water for years without being destroyed.
Find a fungus to deal with the work for several weeks. Hassan and his colleagues are now working on how to organize the industry process.
Other microbial fungi, like Pestalotiopsis, that usually grow on the decaying lichen pages also appear plastic.
This gives us a lot of hope with the help of mushrooms to make a problem for an environmental pollution problem or at least delaying growth that poses a risk to the site that our planet is on. T turning. t
Indeed, fungi, which turn out for everything we pollute with the world, have a keen interest – even the habitats that radiated diseases can even take it back.
But the most important thing here is that mushrooms can be saved from the desperate need of pollution.
A number of teams of scientists in different parts of the world are now trying to find out how to plant the largest mushroom of the mushroom – their mycelium, mycelium, akin to mesh knitted from the thick thread. It would be like replacing plastic with natural materials.
Stronger than concrete
Mycelium filaments are a kind of natural crystal that keeps everything they grow in them.
In 2010, the American company Ecovative Design began to investigate how to use this place in mushrooms to start creating other materials rather than plastic packaging.
The first stage outcome of their work is MycoComposite, where processing waste is used as the basis.
They are packed in recycled forms along with spores of mushrooms and can grow for nine days.
As soon as the product is grown to an acceptable standard, heat treatment is done to prevent it from further developing.
The resulting material is recyclable. Some companies already use it – for example, Dell is packing all his computers.
Ecovative Design has developed a way to grow mycelium and turn it into games, suitable as heat cover, as well as clothes that are natural skinned. But apart from the modern day, it doesn't take years, but days to get such skin.
Well-known designers, such as Stella McCartney, are already interested in the mushrooms.
And recently the shoemaker Liz Sioicagelo mycelium was used in her collection, in which she brought a new perspective to the 1970 movement of the Moon Boot.
Atanassia Atanassio was from the Italian Institute of Technology in Genoa, which was using mushrooms, dress types and new dresses to treat harmful injuries.
Furthermore, she found it was harder to process the material offered to mushrooms for processing, the hardest stuff coming from, opening up new perspectives.
California-based MycoWorks is already working on building materials from the mushrooms.
Connecting molecules with timber, the company managed to create protective brakes that are stronger than the usual concrete.
In addition, mushrooms can be used alongside traditional building materials for "concrete concrete", self-remedy, mirror repair with mycelium sprouting.
"The mycelium capacities are completely endless," said Kalita Guitars, an Indian biographer who, along with colleagues, uses mushrooms to create building materials between wood.
“Everything we are today is visiting agricultural waste as a fascinating and exciting source of mushrooms,” he says. very valuable to us.
Read this first document in English, visit it Future of the BBC.